Martxoak 24 asteazkena

9:00-9:15

Irekiera ofiziala


9:15-10:00

Keynote


Jasone Cenoz

Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea EHU

Minority languages face many challenges, particularly in the case of unique minority languages such as Welsh or Basque, which are not the dominant language of any state. Nowadays minority languages are in contact with speakers of many different languages because of the increasing mobility in a globalized world. Education is probably the most crucial domain to protect and promote minority languages as it can be seen in contexts such as the Basque Country, where the minority language is the main language of instruction. Traditionally, language policy in bilingual and multilingual education has focused on isolating the minority language so that learners optimize their opportunities to use it. Nowadays, there is a trend to soften the boundaries between languages and to encourage learners to translanguage by using elements from their whole linguistic repertoire. Considering that using the minority language is still a major challenge for its speakers, there is the risk that, if translanguaging is encouraged, the majority language will be reinforced at the expense of the minority language. In this presentation, the concept of pedagogical translanguaging as planned by the teacher will be explained. The idea is to combine translanguaging, using resources from the students’ whole
linguistic repertoire with breathing spaces for the minority languages.

10:00-11:30

Parallel session 1


1.1.


4 sessions x 15'

Ada Bier and Marcella Menegale.

CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) in MOOC (Massive Open Online Course): A Pilot Project for the Distance Training in CLIL for Friulian Language Teachers

The present research, framed within the Interreg Eduka 2 Project “For a cross-border governance of education” (http://www.eduka2.eu/eng/), focusses on the issue of teacher training for the teaching of and through minority languages.

Based on the assumption that promotion, not just maintenance, is necessary in order for minority languages to be valued and therefore survive in the future, we developed “Doing CLIL… in Friulian!”, a MOOC for the distance professional training of CLIL teachers in Friulian, which, to our knowledge, is one the very first MOOCs aimed at minority language teacher training.

The MOOC formula allowed us to reach a high number of participants, not only in the area where the majority of the Friulian-speaking community resides (i.e. Friuli Venezia Giulia, North-Eastern Italy), but also across regional and national borders.

The main aim of the MOOC, now in its fourth edition, is to offer to all teachers who are interested in the use of Friulian to teach their discipline the possibility to: 1) understand the linguistic and pedagogical reasons for which the teaching/learning through a minority language is important; 2) understand the characteristics of such reasons; 3) have access to CLIL materials in Friulian created by teachers during a previous stage of the Eduka 2 project (cf. Menegale, Bier 2020), as an example of good practices; 4) start a teachers’ community of practice, encouraging cross-border collaboration.

The MOOC will be described and some of the most significant results from its editions will be presented. Possible future developments for the distance professional training of minority language teachers will also be discussed.

 

Menegale, M.; Bier, A. (2020), “Doing Content and Language Integrated Learning With a Minority Language: A Teacher Development Model”. International Journal of Linguistics, 12(3): pp. 61-83. <https://doi.org/10.5296/ijl.v12i3.16921>

Joana Duarte, Mercator Research Centre for Multilingualism & University of Groningen Eider Saragueta, University of the Basque Country Durk Gorter, University of the Basque Country; Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science.

The recent increase of multilingual pupils has led to the investigation of models of multilingual education (Cenoz, 2009). Research has offered evidence for the potential of using multilingualism for raising academic achievement (Duarte, 2011). Despite these insights we see disparities in how minority languages are integrated into mainstream education. This is often due to negative attitudes of teachers about multilingualism, lack of knowledge about the advantages of using all of the pupils’ languages for learning and limited pedagogical skills on how to implement multilingual education. Empirical research on professional development of teachers shows that a small intervention can have significant effects on their knowledge and the use of digital tools such as computer-based applications is proposed (Van Laere et al. 2017). Technology in education is a comparatively new phenomenon; most teachers are not sufficiently technologically skilled when they enter the profession. As such, little research has been conducted combining the newest insights on multilingual education with the latest technological developments.

The Virtual Language App (VirtuLApp) addresses this gap. It is set in various multilingual European regions in which minority and migrant languages co-exist, such as the Netherlands, the Basque Country, Ireland and Belgium. The project uses a combination of digital approaches to develop attitudes, knowledge and skills of primary school teachers for multilingual education. Concretely, it develops three tools: first, a collaborative game for pupils aged 8-12 which can be used to raise awareness amongst teachers towards the value using of pupils’ languages; second, a chatbot quizto increase the knowledge of teachers about multilingual language development; and third, it provides an online video-toolbox for teachers containing best-practices, implementation and didactical skills for a multilingual approach. The paper will present prototypes of all three products and discuss the technological developments needed for their development. Results of a needs analysis with primary school teachers on the use of digital tools for multilingual education will also be discussed.

Multilingual education, Minority languages, European education, digital tools, professional development of teachers Cenoz, J. (2009). Towards Multilingual Education. Basque Educational Research from an International Perspective. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Duarte, J. (2011). Bilingual language proficiency. A comparative study. Münster: Waxmann Verlag. Van Laere, E., Rosiers, K., Van Avermaet, P. Slembrouck, S. & van Braak, J. (2017). What can technology offer to linguistically diverse classrooms? Using multilingual content in a computer-based learning environment for primary education, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38:2, 97-112.

Mirjam Günther, Joana Duarte.

Teachers use various arguments to exclude migrant and minority languages from their class. The main argument is that they lack the resources and language expertise to deal with multilingualism in their class (Pulinx, Agirdag & Van Avermaet, 2015). However, developments in (language) technology, in particular Computer-Based Learning Environments (CBLEs), offer an excellent solution to this problem. Several studies have shown that CBLEs can function as a powerful tool to acquire complex knowledge and skills and at the same time support language acquisition (e.g. Van Laere, Agirdag & Van Braak, 2016).

For two primary education projects in the North of the Netherlands we developed a CBLE that offers multilingual teaching content in the fields of Nature and Technology education, using a Content and Language Integrated (CLIL) approach. All material is available in Frisian, Low Saxon, Dutch, German, English, Polish, Arabic and Tigrinya, both orally and written. The CLBE allows pupils to switch between multiple languages and compare the languages side by side, besides offering several assignments in which multiple languages are combined.

For this presentation we focus on two groups of pupils (N=60, grades 3 and 4) that worked with the CLBE, zooming in on the regional minority languages Frisian and Low Saxon. We use both results from the CBLE to measure pupils’ content and language learning progress and focus group discussions to evaluate how the CLBE added to pupils’ learning experience.

References
Pulinx, R., Van Avermaet, P., & Agirdag, O. (2015). “Silencing linguistic diversity: The extent, the determinants and consequences of the monolingual beliefs of Flemish teachers.” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.

Van Laere, E., Agirdag, O. & van Braak, J. (2016). Supporting science learning in linguistically diverse classrooms: Factors related to the use of bilingual content in a computer-based learning environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 428-441.

Karin van der Worp.

Nowadays, related to the concept of the European University, it is increasingly common to find international collaborations between universities. This brings along discussions about the languages used in such partnerships, and even more in contexts where a minority language is already at play. The use of a majority’s Lingua Franca is by some considered as a threat to linguistic diversity –and consequently to minority languages-, but also seen by others as a necessary tool for effective communication across borders.

The present study explores the role of the minority language Basque in a crossborder project between a University in the Spanish part of the Basque Country and a university in France. In this interdisciplinary cross-border project “Ocean i3”, staff, students and professors from different faculties work together to contribute to the reduction of plastic pollution at their transboundary coast. The work group includes participants with a diverse linguistic repertoire including, among others, the majority languages Spanish and French, the minority language Basque and the international language English.

This study aims to analyse the use of the minority language in this international community, in order to propose an adequate language policy with the ultimate goal of preserving and promoting the use of the minority language in cross-border contexts. Therefore, on the one hand, the actual use of the minority language by the participants is analysed by observing their meetings. On the other hand, the linguistic profile and needs of the participants regarding the minority language are analysed by collecting questionnaire data.

The results of the study show both the wish of the participants as well as the actual possibility of using Basque in cross-border university collaborations. The results indicate that a true multilingual environment is possible, including space for the minority language, without the need of opting for one exclusive vehicular language.

1.2.


4 sessions x 15'

David-Jordi Llobet-Martín.

La propuesta pretende exponer una investigación de carácter cualitativo sobre los llamados nuevos catalanohablantes, en el ámbito geográfico de la isla de Mallorca. Con un enfoque etnográfico enmarcado en la sociolingüística crítica, se analizan los discursos de un grupo de personas de orígenes diversos que no tienen el catalán como L1, pero lo han aprendido y lo han adoptado como lengua habitual.

La metodología utilizada es la entrevista en profundidad de carácter etnográfico, basada en la observación participante. La selección de las personas que participan en el estudio tiene en cuenta diferentes variables para garantizar la diversidad de la muestra desde el punto de vista de la edad, del género, del origen familiar (procedente de otros territorios del Estado, de otros estados de la UE, de estados extracomunitarios, mixto…) y de la posición social. Las entrevistas se llevan a cabo en el entorno habitual de los entrevistados (su hogar, su entorno laboral…).

Mediante el análisis del discurso de las personas entrevistadas, se extraen las experiencias significativas que han configurado sus trayectorias lingüísticas, poniendo una atención especial en los procesos de mudas lingüísticas (la adopción del catalán como lengua habitual) y en la relación entre estos procesos y las ideologías lingüísticas y las identidades etnoterritoriales que manifiestan.

El estudio pretende ampliar la línea de investigación iniciada por Woolard y Pujolar, entre otros, sobre las experiencias de los nuevos catalanohablantes en el ámbito de Cataluña a otro ámbito territorial del dominio lingüístico del catalán hasta ahora inexplorado desde esta perspectiva, como es la isla de Mallorca.

Olatz Altuna-Zumeta and Jone Miren Hernández-García.

El euskara es considerada una lengua misteriosa, cuyos orígenes han dado lugar a todo tipo de especulaciones. No obstante avanzando en el siglo XXI, hoy, las preguntas relevantes para el euskara no tienen tanto que ver con su pasado como con su presente y futuro. La incertidumbre sobre el comportamiento lingüístico de los jóvenes hablantes de euskara hace que se hayan convertido en protagonistas de la sociolingüística vasca. Con la intención de compartir escenario con estos jóvenes, conocer mejor su realidad, sus prácticas, sus discursos y vivencias, hemos realizamos un estudio cualitativo en cuatro municipios de la CAPV, en concreto: Gernika, Amorebieta-Etxano, Zumaia y Donibane.

El objetivo principal de la investigación era profundizar en las variables cualitativas que inciden en el uso del euskara en la juventud de los citados municipios. Para ello se trabajó en una doble dirección. Por una parte buscando un acercamiento a la realidad, el modo de vida y el mundo relacional de estos jóvenes. Por otra parte, profundizando en sus ideologías, prácticas y vivencias relacionadas con la lengua (fundamentalmente el euskara).

Para abordar estos objetivos se planteó una estrategia a modo de “cebolla”, en la cual las y los investigadores fueron accediendo progresivamente al mundo cotidiano, discursivo y vivencial de las y los jóvenes. Observación participante, entrevistas, itinerarios guiados por los distintos municipios y “diarios” sobre sus prácticas lingüísticas, nos han permitido dar un paso más en la comprensión de lo que el euskara significa hoy para sus hablantes más jóvenes.

La investigación fue promovida por el Clúster de Sociolingüística y la Universidad del País Vasco y financiada por los ayuntamientos objeto de la muestra, la Diputación Foral de Gipuzkoa y el Gobierno Vasco.

Ruth Kircher, Ethan Kutlu.

Spanish speakers constitute the largest heritage language (HL) community across the United States – but Florida is special because, despite having one of the highest rates of foreign-born residents coming from Latin America, it has the lowest Spanish vitality in the country (United States Census 2018). There is no known previous research that explains this.

We hypothesise that Spanish speakers in Florida have internalised wider social evaluations of themselves and their HL as inferior, and that this internalisation manifests as negative attitudes towards their HL (cf. the work of Henri Tajfel). Since language attitudes consist of three components, namely affect, cognition, and conation, Spanish speakers’ negative attitudes towards their HL are likely to have detrimental implications not only for their psychological well-being (cf. the work of Annick De Houwer) but also for the likelihood of their HL being maintained (cf. the work of Joshua Fishman).

To investigate this, we examine attitudes towards Spanish as a HL in Florida by means of a corpus-assisted discourse study of English, Spanish, and bilingual data from the microblogging site Twitter (~1 million words, using Florida geotags). Making use of the corpus linguistics programme AntConc, we analyse frequencies and collocations to establish statistically significant and meaningful trends, as well as considering concordance lines and larger discourse segments to allow for meaning to be established in context.

Since the study is still in progress, we cannot comment on our final findings yet. However, we can already say that our approach provides comprehensive and nuanced insights regarding all three components of language attitudes – i.e. affect, cognition, and conation – and so far, our hypothesis seems to be supported. We will discuss the implications of our final findings in terms of the aforementioned psychological well-being of Spanish speakers, and the likelihood of Spanish being maintained as a HL in Florida.

Belen Uranga, Xabier Aierdi.

El Mapa de las lenguas de Gipuzkoa (Aierdi et al, 2018) revela que entre la población de origen extranjero (10,3% del total) se hablan aproximadamente 130 lenguas. Puede observarse que el 80%, cuyo origen son 20 estados, hablan probablemente 10 lenguas; otras 120 lenguas con menor número de hablantes constituyen la superdiversidad lingüística presente en el país. Paralelamente, se ha observado que en dicha población ocupa un lugar importante la originaria de países donde el castellano es lengua oficial, y que habitualmente es monolingüe en esa lengua. Además se ha ampliado el análisis a los territorio de Araba y Bizkaia, como acercamiento al ecosistema de la diversidad lingüística de Euskal Herria.

Dicho ecosistema plantea un gran reto a la sociedad de acogida, pues la sitúa ante un complejo paradigma de gestión, donde la superdiversidad lingüística se acompaña de un activo proceso de revitalización lingüística del euskera (minorizada y cooficial con el castellano) en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca.

Los censos no recopilan datos sobre las lenguas de inmigración, aunque se tienen ciertos testimonios directos (Uranga et al 2008, Aragon et al. 2017… ). Así, se ha realizado una investigación, inicialmente en el territorio de Gipuzkoa, mediante entrevistas y mesas de debate, por lo que se han podido identificar las lenguas de inmigración, las actitudes, opiniones y prácticas de sus hablantes con respecto de ellas y del castellano y del euskera.

Aierdi, X., Uranga, B. (2018). Gipuzkoako hizkuntza aniztasunaren mapa. Azterketa eta proposamenak. Andoain, Soziolinguistika Klusterra: https://www.gipuzkoa.eus/documents/882543/11611163/02+Aierdi_Uranga_2018.pdf/92204 f08-ec7e-758e-59d6-45a2e88c38d5. Fernández Aragón, I., Shershneva, J., Fouassier Zamalloa, M. (2017). “Aniztasuna ikasgeletan: ikuspegi kuantitatiboa”, Haur eta Gazteen aniztasuna EAEn (Oker izendatutako) bigarren belaunaldiak. Bilbo . Ikuspegi. Uranga, B., Aierdi, X., Idiazabal, I. Amorrortu, E., Barreña, A., Ortega, A. (2008). Hizkuntzak eta Immigrazioa. Bilbo: Ikuspegi, Unesco Etxea.

1.3.


4 sessions x 15'

Pablo Suberbiola, Pello Jauregi.

In the context of minority languages, such as Basque, the following vicious circle is often repeated in relation with the passive Basque speakers: fluent speakers of Basque speak to them in Spanish/French because they lack complete competences, and as a consequence, they never become fluent speakers and they never have regular communication in Basque.

The Sociolinguistics Cluster develops the Aldahitz project in collaboration with the University of the Basque Country. The project focuses mainly in the process of change of language habits. As an element of the project, we have developed the Ulerrizketa methodology (Jauregi and Suberbiola, 2019)

This methodology combines two profile speakers: those with an intermediate level of understanding in Basque (or passive bilinguals) and those with a high level of oral competence. Based on the voluntary decision of both parties, this methodology opens up the possibility of beginning to communicate in Basque, with a brief initial joint training. To this end, understanding is placed at the centre of the methodology, a type of understanding that actors build together (Bruner, 1990).

The paper will present the main features of the Ulerrizketa methodology and will discuss on the contribution that this proposal can make. Among others, we will discuss whether such a divergent strategy (including bilingual conversations) can progress in a language market such as Basque (Bourdieu, 1982), or whether it can help to renew the sociolinguistic culture.

References
Bourdieu, P. (1982). Ce Que Parler Veut Dire. L’economie des Èchanges Linguistiques. Paris : Fayard. Bruner, J. (1990). El habla del niño. Barcelona: Paidós. Jauregi, P. and Suberbiola, P. (2019). Ulerrizketa metodologia. Andoain: Soziolinguistika Klusterra.

Julia Barnes.

The paper takes the form of an auto-ethnographic reflection on the learning of Basque as an LX by a multilingual speaker of English (L1), French (L2), Spanish (L3) with some knowledge of German (Agustyniak, 2016) It reviews the thirty-year period during which she has lived and worked in the Basque Autonomous Community of Spain and draws on the subject´s experience as an English language teacher trainer in a Faculty of Education where Basque is the language of study, administration and personal relations (Komisarof, A. & Zhu Hua, 2016). The study examines her proficiency in the Basque language and posits reasons for her uneven levels of attainment in different language skills.

It then describes the subject´s experience, recorded in a diary, as a participant in the bi-annual “Euskaraldia” language initiatives that commenced on 23rd November to 3rd December 2018 and were repeated in autumn 2020. This involved individuals opting to wear a badge during an eleven-day period to show either willingness to use Basque (Belarriprest – an open ear) or determination to use Basque (Ahozbizi – an open mouth). It was found that use of the Belarriprest badge was key in helping to consolidate her knowledge of, and confidence with, the language (MacIntyre et al, 2011).

 

Augustyniak, A. (2016) ‘Basque for all?’ Ideology and identity in migrants´perceptions of Basque. Unpublished doctoral thesis.

Komisarof, A. & Zhu Hua (Eds.). (2016). Crossing boundaries and weaving intercultural work, life, and scholarship in globalizing universities. London: Routledge.

MacIntyre, P.D., Burns, C., & Jessome, A. (2011). Ambivalence about communicating in a second language: A qualitative study of French immersion students´willingness to communicate. Modern Language Journal, 95, 81- 96

Idurre Eskisabel, Beatriz Zabalondo, Eduardo Apodaka, Jordi Morales-i-Gras, Uxoa Anduaga.

Basque language revitalisation and normalisation policies and initiatives are living a changing phase. The necessity to go beyond knowledge has gently extended in policies and social initiatives to support the effective use of Basque language. In this context, public communication has a strategic importance. Hereby, the Basque Sociolinguistics Cluster and the University of the Basque Country collaborated to conduct an action research project at the end of 2015: Jendaurrean Erabili Praktika Komunitatea. In essence, the main goal of the project has been to a Community of Practice for the promotion of the public use of Basque language.

In this article we will explain 1) the sociolinguistic context and the politicalideological frame of the project and of the intervention, 2) why, what for and how the CoP has been employed as a method, 3) the adaptation and the development of the CoP, and 4), we will finally introduce the upcoming challenges derived from the results obtained so far.

Txerra Rodriguez.

30 urteetan zehar, tokian tokiko euskara elkarteek inpaktua izan dute euskararen biziberritzean (Rodriguez, 2020). Baina zeintzuk izan dira euskara elkarteek ehundu duten mihigintza ariketa horretan aritu izan diren pertsonak? Zeintzuk izan dira euskara elkarteen inguruko jarduna sostengatu duten ehuleak?

Hitzaldi honetan, euskara elkarteak martxan jarri eta biziarazi dituzten hizkuntza aktibistak (“hizkuntza euren kezken erdigunean jartzen dituztenak”, Spolsky, 2009) izango ditut jomugan. Aurkezpenean hurreratuko naiz aktibista horiengana eta aztertuko dut zenbat izan diren eta diren, zeintzuk izan diren eta diren (adina, generoa eta abar), zer motibazio izan duten euskara elkarteen mugimenduan engaiatzeko, zer ikasi duten jardun horretan, zer ekarpen egin die aktibismo horrek eta abar.

Pertsona horiek nortzuk izan diren jakiteko, baina, aurkezpen honekin hurrerapen bat egin nahiko nuke. Hurrerapena, batez ere, oraindik ikerketa sakonagoak egin beharko liratekeelako aurkeztuko ditudan datu kuantitatibo zein kualitatiboak berresteko eta sendotzeko.

Hurrerapen horretan bi iturri nagusi erabiliko ditut: batetik, Topaguneak euskara elkarteen artean aldiro egiten dituen azterketak (2013, 2017 eta 2020koak) eta, bestetik, 26 elkarteko kideei egindako sakoneko elkarrizketak (Rodriguez, 2020).

Horrez gain, aktibista horien jarduna hobetzeko proposamen apal batzuk ere egin nahiko nituzke, ondorioak aletzearekin batera.

Bibliografia
Rodriguez, T. (2020) 30 urte mihigintzan: euskara elkarteek euskararen biziberritzean izan duten eragina: 1987-2017, argitaratu gabeko doktore-tesia, Leioa: Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea.
Spolsky, B. (2009) Language management, Cambridge: Cambridge university press.

1.4.


4 sessions x 15'

Catalina Amengual-Ripoll.

This project aims to create a linguistic welcoming plan in Lloseta, a village in the Balearic Islands. The work presented here is a result of the review of the hosting trends in the Balearic Islands —Pla Integral d’Atenció a la Immigració de les Illes Balears (2001), Els immigrants extracomunitaris a la comunitat de les Illes Balears (2001), Pla d’Actuacions en Matèria de Política Lingüística per al Quinqueni 2016-2021 (2016), Informe i Propostes Lingüístiques de cohesió social (2018) i Orientacions per a l’elaboració del pla d’acollida (2018), Pla d’Actuacions Urgents en Normalització Lingüística a les Illes Balears (2000), Pla General de Normalització Lingüística de les Illes Balears (2009)— and its comparison with those of Catalonia —Un pacte per viure junts i juntes. Pacte Nacional per a la immigració (2008)— and the Basque Country —Orientaciones para la elaboración del Plan de Acogida del alumnado inmigrante (2004)— using Isidor Marí’s —“Un projecte intercultural compartible per tothom” (2005), “Immigració, inclusió social i integració lingüística” (2007)— theoretical concepts.

The proposal, thus, consists of two parts. In the first part, an overview of the different actions proposed by the above plans will be done. The second part is the linguistic welcoming plan in Lloseta that we developed taking into account a self-response survey to Es Puig de Lloseta Primary School —with 197 respondents— a telephone interview survey to the teachers of winter activities in Lloseta —with 27 respondents— and 33 interviewees, both newcomers to the Balearic Islands and professionals of the field.

Hans van de Velde and Zoha Bayat. Utrecht University and The Fryske Akademy.

In the Netherlands Frisian is recognised as the 2nd official language in the province of Fryslân. Fryslân has a long tradition of bilingual and trilingual schools, and regulations prescribe that all pupils have to reach set targets for Frisian. However, there are a lot of exemptions, a small number of pupils take Frisian as an examination topic at the end of secondary education, and a small number of young Frisians have good writing skills.

Frisian language education in the Netherlands is analysed from a legal perspective. This evaluation is grounded in the main principles of international law and the European Union regarding minorities’ right to language and education, namely, equality, non-discrimination and the right to (mother-tongue) education. The agreements between the central government and the Province Fryslân will be analysed to gain insight into the reception and implementation of international and EU provisions in the Netherlands’ domestic context, and to identify the factors which hinder and advance this implementation.

The relevant instruments are the Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (1950), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (1966), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESC) (1966), the Declaration on Minorities (1992), the European Charter on Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) (1992), the Framework Convention on Protection of National Minorities (1994), the Netherlands’ Constitution as well as the agreements between the Dutch central government and the Province Fryslân on Frisian language and education. The paper will focus on the discrepancies between (1) the Netherlands’ domestic laws and the international/EU standards and (2) the domestic legal framework and its implementation. We will conclude the paper with suggestions for the provincial government, from a legal perspective, to assure that they can reach the ambitious targets for Frisian language skills.

Keywords: Minorities educational rights, International law, Frisians, the Netherlands, language rights, domestic practice, mother tongue education.

Iris Orosia Campos Bandrés.

El estudio de las actitudes hacia el aragonés en el ámbito educativo ha sido abordado en todas las etapas de la enseñanza reglada y desde diferentes enfoques metodológicos. En Educación Secundaria, el principal referente lo encontramos en el trabajo de Huguet (2006), desarrollado hace más de una década y en un momento muy diferente al actual en términos de política lingüística (López, 2018). Con el objetivo de actualizar el estado de la cuestión, se desarrolló una investigación cuantitativa en el territorio oscense de influencia histórica reciente del aragonés. Los datos se recopilaron en una muestra de 790 adolescentes mediante dos técnicas: la indirecta de matched guise y la directa de cuestionario cerrando, utilizando en este caso la herramienta de Huguet (2006) con la finalidad de poder ofrecer un análisis fiable de la evolución. Los resultados muestran una evolución negativa en la valoración del aragonés y positiva para el inglés, así como el influjo de algunos factores escolares y sociales en la determinación de las actitudes. De los resultados se extraen también las limitaciones de una política lingüística que, hasta el momento, no garantiza la normalización educativa (Campos, 2019) de las lenguas propias de Aragón.

Campos, I.O. (2019). 20 años de aragonés en la Educación Infantil y Primaria, ¿hacia su normalización en la escuela? En J. Giralt y F. Nagore (Eds.), La normalización social de las lenguas minoritarias (pp. 241-272). Zaragoza: Prensas de la Universidad de Zaragoza.

Huguet, Á. (2006). Plurilingüismo y escuela en Aragón. Huesca: Instituto de Estudios Altoaragoneses.

López, J.I. (2018). Política lingüística en Aragón: estado de la cuestión. En J. Giralt y F. Nagore (Eds.), Lenguas minoritarias en Europa y Estandarización (pp. 208- 229). Zaragoza: Prensas de la Universidad de Zaragoza.

Iwona Kasperska. 

El náhuatl es la lengua indígena más importante de México, hablada por 1,7 millones de personas (INEGI, 2015). Según la UNESCO (2010), el náhuatl es una de las lenguas vulnerables. Sin embargo, los investigadores como Olko y Sullivan (2016) enfatizan que esta cifra son demasiado oprimista. La discriminación, la política educativa excluyente, la falta de apoyo a las comunidades indígenas, así como la situación económica y la migración hacen que cada vez menos niños y adolescentes hablen en náhuatl. Se están volviendo bilingües pasivos (Hornsby). Mientras tanto, los adultos nativos limitan drásticamente el uso de su lengua materna a muy pocas situaciones. Esta característica sitúa a la lengua náhuatl entre las que están desapareciendo o muriendo (disappearing/moribund, Grenoble & Whaley, 2006). El proyecto interdisciplinario REVITA-NAHUATL consiste en realizar múltiples actividades de revitalización mediante el método de la etnografía doblemente reflexiva (Dietz 2011). En esta ponencia se presentarán los objetivos, las acciones concretas y las formas de llevarlas a cabo con una organización sin fines de lucro, haciendo un hincapié especial en el entorno ideológico que es inevitable cuando se trata de la política lingüística en un país multicultural.

Referencias

INEGI (2015) “Encuesta intercensal”, https://www.inegi.org.mx Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger (2010), Moseley, C. (ed.). Paris, UNESCO.
Dietz, G. (2011) “Hacia una etnografía doblemente reflexiva: una propuesta desde la antropología de la interculturalidad”. AIBR, 6, 1, pp. 3-26. Grenoble, L.A. & Whaley, L.J. (2006), Saving Languages. An Introduction to Language Revitalization. Cambridge University Press.
Hornsby M. “Zagrożenie języków” en Nau N. et al. (eds.), Języki w niebezpieczeństwie. Wydział Neofilologii UAM. DOI 10.14746/9788394719845. Olko J. & Sullivan J. (2016), “Bridging Gaps and Empowering Speakers: an Inclusive, Partnership-Based Approach to Nahuatl Research and Revitalization” en Olko J. et al. (eds.) Integral Strategies for Language Revitalization. University of Warsaw.

1.5.


4 sessions x 15'

Duncan Poupard.

Multilingual minority authors in globalized nations face what Deleuze and Guattari have called the “impossibility of writing” in languages that are non-mainstream. They find themselves “marginalized and obliged to use the dominant world languages” (Bandia 2007, 204). This is clearly the case in China, which (officially) has 56 ethnic groups and 55 minorities. In recent decades, writers from China’s ethnic minorities have increasingly used Chinese script for their literary compositions. Standard written Chinese is generally seen as a homogeneous writing system, but is there a way out of this homogeneity? While minority writers ostensibly write in Chinese using the standard form, elements of their heritage language can be identified in their works, serving to construct a literary heteroglossia. We know that such heteroglossia illustrates the tension and negotiation of bicultural identities, but may also serve as a means of language preservation.

This paper takes a sociolinguistic approach to analyse the literature of two TibetoBurman language speaking minorities in China’s multi-ethnic southwest, the neighbouring Naxi (Naqxi) and Bai (Bairt) peoples, in an effort to understand how they can prevent their languages from being lost. These are minority languages that are suffering from language attrition, but when, for example, Naqxi author Sha Li writes of his hometown, “崩石, 汉名叫白沙” [Bbesheeq, called in Chinese Baisha], we see in the coexistence of Naqxi and Chinese an example of a literary heteroglossia that serves to assert a particular ethnic identity. Moreover, the use of native words points towards a form of language preservation – of minority authors re-negotiating the literary form, and inventing new ways of writing that are at once accessible to mainstream readers and sensitive to the inclusion of heritage languages.

References
Bandia, Paul. 2007. “Postcolonialism, Literary Heteroglossia and Translation”. In Caribbean Interfaces. Leiden: Brill

Larraitz Ariznabarreta. Center for Basque Studies University of Nevada, Reno.

Narrative and literary discourse have proved to be very fertile ground for the construction of both individual and/or social/cultural identity. The paper analyses different Basque canonical writers’ self-referential views regard their own language (Euskara). Through the study of an anthology of Basque literature published by the Basque Institute Etxepare, (At!) 1 — which contains several literary pieces written ex profeso as “a salutation to the Etxepare Institute”— the paper examines the linguistic and cultural identity constituents deemed central by different Basque contemporary writers. The Etxepare Institute is Basque Regional Government founded institution that, according to its statutes, was created to (act as) “an ambassador for our language and culture abroad, (…) to spread the Basque language and culture throughout the world”. This is precisely where an analysis of the collection becomes significant. The paper suggests that through the selfreferential views regards their own culture and language; the Basque writers included in the collection present themselves to the world while they also contribute to scaffold the inner schemata of Basque collective identity.

What are the identity constituents showcased? What metaphors and recourses are employed? What are the symbolic representations at play? The analysis concludes that no other tension is more central to contemporary Basque culture than the ambivalent strife between distinctiveness (the quality of being unique, singular) and the compelling yearning for global equivalency and legitimation. This double-consciousness is, in fact, the essential quality of Basque culture today. A quality that reveals a subordinated minoritized linguistic and cultural community striving to persevere in its difference while pleading for its survival, normalization, and legitimation in the global world.

1- The full anthology may be read online and downloaded at: https://www.etxepare.eus/en/publications

Elija Lutze.

This paper examines the representation of Catalan language and culture in the textbooks Veus 1, 2 & 3, used in the context of Catalan as a Foreign Language or Second Language. Teaching material, just as (second) language teaching in general, “is situated and embedded in discourses, always seen and represented from somewhere and by some people with specific life histories, experiences and power positions” (Foucault 1976); in projecting and presenting a language, we represent the world linguistically and culturally and include a hidden curriculum (see Apple 1986 and 1993) in our discourses. Drawing primarily on Risager (2018), this paper analyses the textbooks qualitatively regarding the models of language, culture and society; interculturalism, standard language and language variation; further it examines selected chapters based five different readings or approaches: national studies, citizenship education studies, cultural studies, postcolonial studies and transnational studies. The Veus textbooks seem to be aimed especially at the teaching and learning of Catalan as a Second Language in Catalonia and do not take into consideration either the linguistic variation of the Catalan language or the cultural diversity of its linguistic territory; the representation of the world in the books is often incomplete, eurocentric and especially centered on Catalonia, but there is near to no banal nationalism; culture is often represented in a superficial manner and using clichés; the Catalan language is shown as a perfectly normal and normalized language, without signs of language competition, conflict or shift. Finally, this paper encourages thinking about a didactic approach to the teaching of Catalan as a Foreign Language that may be built on linguistic and cultural diversity and might take into account transnational connections and relationships that are made between learners of Catalan as a Foreign Language around the world.

Keywords: critical analysis, representation, Catalan as a Foreign Language, culture, sociolinguistics.

References (selection)
Apple, M. (1986). Ideología y currículo. Madrid: Akal. ———— (1993). Official Knowledge. Democratic Education In A Conservative Age. Nova York: Routledge.
Foucault, M. (1976). La volonté de savoir. Histoire de la Sexualité 1. París: Gallimard.
Risager, K. (2018). Representations of the World in Language Textbooks. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Stuart Dunmore.

The development of speaking ability, fluency, or ‘oracy’ in children becomes a matter of heightened political and emotional significance in minority language settings. In Scotland, the Gaelic language is now spoken by just 1% of the national population, having been severely minoritised over several centuries. Formerly Gaelic-dominant communities in the Highlands and Islands have continued to attenuate in recent decades, in spite of official policy to revitalise Gaelic in Scotland since the 1980s. Conversely, policy initiatives which aim to grow the language, such as Gaelic-medium education (GME) continue to expand in urban settings. Languages serve as repositories of culture and identity for those who have learned to speak them, whether on a parent’s knee, in primary classrooms in childhood, in adolescence or adulthood. If greater numbers of orally proficient speakers, with both the ability and inclination to raise their own families through Gaelic are to be generated, policy to extend and improve GME provision in Scotland will be imperative to realising this objective. Yet numerous obstacles impede the expansion of immersion education provision in Scotland, including teacher recruitment, lack of continuity in subject availability at secondary school, and culturally appropriate curriculum development. As has recently been emphasised by GME students and parents from Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) backgrounds, people of colour in Gaelic communities in urban settings often face additional, distressing challenges. This is at odds with the development of a multicultural society that embraces the manifold heritages and identities of all citizens. This paper will explore the issue of ethnicity and linguistic identity in GME, based on ongoing fieldwork and qualitative interviews with parents, former students and teachers.

11:30-12:00

Etena


12:00-13:30

Parallel session 2


2.1.


4 sessions x 15'

Oihana Leonet, Eider Saragueta Garrido.

Europan zehar ohikoa da eskoletan bi hizkuntza edo gehiago irakastea, baina prozesu horretan hizkuntzak elkarren artean isolatuta egon ohi dira. Praktika pedagogiko horiek hiztun eleaniztunek hizkuntzak erabiltzeko duten berezko modutik urrun daude, izan ere, duten errepertorio osoa erabiltzeko aukera mugatzen zaie. Dena den, translanguaging pedagogikoaren bidez (Cenoz eta Gorter, 2017) ikasleek beraien hizkuntza baliabide guztiak era zabalean erabiltzeko aukera dute eta baita hizkuntz kontzientzia garatzeko ere, halabaina erronka ugari sortu ditu hizkuntza gutxituen irakaskuntza tarteko denean (Leonet, Cenoz eta Gorter, 2017). Ikerketa honen helburua translanguaging pedagogikoan oinarritutako eskuhartze batean parte-hartu zuten ikasleen hizkuntz kontzientzia aztertzea izan da. Ikerketan, EAEko eskola publiko bateko D ereduko 5. eta 6.mailako 64 ikasle eleaniztunek hartu zuten parte eta guztiak ingelesa ikasten ari ziren atzerriko hizkuntza gisa. Horietatik % 51,9ak gaztelania zuen etxeko hizkuntza, % 26,9 euskara eta % 21,2 aipatu bi hizkuntzak. Ikerketa gauzatzeko 18 talde-eztabaida (focus group) egin ziren eta ondoren datuak modu kualitatiboan analizatu. Ikerketako emaitzek erakusten dute, ikasleek translaguaging-ean oinarritutako esku-hartzearen bidez hizkuntzen kontzientzia areagotu dutela, eta horrek, hizkuntza gutxituen sentsibilitatean eragin zuzena izan duela. Halaber, agerian utzi du curriculumeko hiru hizkuntzen arteko estatus desoreka.

Erreferentziak
Jasone Cenoz & Durk Gorter (2017) Minority languages and sustainable translanguaging: threat or opportunity?, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38:10, 901-912, DOI: 10.1080/01434632.2017.1284855
Oihana Leonet, Jasone Cenoz & Durk Gorter (2017) Challenging Minority Language Isolation: Translanguaging in a Trilingual School in the Basque Country, Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 16:4, 216-227, DOI: 10.1080/15348458.2017.1328281

Leire Ituiño Aguirre, Artzai Gaspar Arraiza, Eider Saragueta.

Hizkuntza gutxituak sustatzeko asmoz, Europan ahalegin handiak egiten ari dira eleaniztasunean oinarrituriko hezkuntza-ikuspegiak bultzatu eta ikertzeko. Garciaren (2017) arabera, Linguistically Sensitive Teaching (LST) kontzeptuak “critical multilingual languages awareness and teacher education”ari egiten dio erreferentzia. Testuinguru horretan kokatzen da Linguistically Sensitive Teaching in All Classrooms (LISTiac) ekintza-ikerketa egiten duen proiektu europarra. LST-aren beharrizanak aintzat hartuz, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) ikuspegia garrantzi handia hartzen ari da, eta ildo berean, translanguaging jasangarria kokatzen da hizkuntza gutxituak eta eleaniztasuna sustatzeko (Cenoz eta Gorter, 2017). Van Kampenen et al. (2018) arabera, gainera, CLIL ikuspegian LST bultzatzen duten beste estrategia andana jartzen da martxan. Testuinguru horretan, irakasleek ulermena errazteko abian jarritako estrategiak aztertzea izango du helburu LISTIAC proiektuaren baitako ikerketa honek. Partaideak, Gipuzkoako B eta D ereduko ikastetxe bateko lehen hezkuntzako 5. mailako 80 eta DBHko 123 ikasle izan dira. Behaketa eta elkarrizketen bidez jaso da informazioa, irakasleek ulermena errazteko abian jarritako estrategiak identifikatu zein deskribatuz eta translanguagingean arreta berezia ipiniz. Emaitzek erakusten dute, batetik, irakasleak jakitun direla ikasleek ulermen gabeziak dituztela, eta hortaz, estrategia multzo zabala erabiltzen dutela edukia ulertarazteko, baina beti ez dira eraginkorrak edo ez dituzte eskura. Bestetik, translanguaging pedagogikoari dagokionez ez da estrategia argirik nabari, aldiz, bat-bateko translanguaging-a gelan ohikoz erabiltzen da: esaldiak osatzeko edota gaiez edo mezuaren hartzailez aldatzeko.

Erreferentziak
Cenoz, J., eta Gorter, D. (2017). Minority languages and sustainable translanguaging: Threat or opportunity? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38(10), 901–912.
García, O. (2017). Critical multilingual awareness and teacher education. In: Cenoz, J., Gorter, D. & May, S (Eds.) Language awareness and multilingualism. Encyclopedia of language and education (263–280). Berlin: Springer.
Van Kampen, E., Admiraal, W., eta Berry, A. (2018). Content and language integrated learning in the Netherlands: teachers’ self-reported pedagogical practices. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(2), 222–23

Eabele Tjepkema.

In the multilingual classroom, holistic views taking into account the learners’ whole linguistic repertoire are getting more attention. In Cenoz & Gorter’s (2015) approach, it is argued that students should be treated multilingually in ways depending on their process from ‘becoming multilingual to being multilingual’, and in which students are enabled to use all (linguistic) resources available.

Although originally the pedagogical concept of translanguaging included planned bilingual language use for content learning, in current practices Lewis et al. (2013) describe different patterns of teacher- and student language use. Criticism on pluralinguistic approaches is that students will not be sufficiently stimulated to use target language and therefore target language development might be hindered (Cenoz & Gorter, 2017).

This issue will be addressed in this presentation on the basis of data from Frisian trilingual primary schools, in which Frisian, English and Dutch are used as vehicle languages in content-based education. The research question that will be addressed is: which languages are used by students for input, interaction and output, and how is student language use related to vocabulary- and reading comprehension development.

Data have been collected by event sampling observations of 51 content-lessons in the three target languages in seven trilingual primary schools. Student language development in the three target languages was assessed using vocabulary- and reading comprehension tests specifically developed for evaluation in Dutch primary schools.

Analyses show different student language use patterns in the three target language lessons, and that Dutch- and Frisian vocabulary- and reading comprehension development are related to different language use patterns. This study makes future research and policy making possible with respect to the stimulation of language planning in the multilingual classroom.

References
Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2015). Towards a holistic approach in the study of multilingual education. Multilingual education: Between language learning and translanguaging, 1-15.
Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2017). Minority languages and sustainable translanguaging: Threat or opportunity?. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38(10), 901-912.
Lewis, G. et al. C. (2013). 100 bilingual lessons: Distributing two languages in classrooms. Bilingualism in a school setting, 107-135.

2.2.


4 sessions x 15'

Steven Byrne.

As a European territory where nationalism and the search for independence are most prevalent, the importance of public debates on the co-officiality of languages in Catalonia is of considerable importance. The most recent scholarly work, conducted in various settings among varying groups in Catalonia, has found that not only the linguistic practices of many residents in the region but also the ideological grounding of these practices has shifted noticeably in the opening decades of the 21st century, with a reduction in both in-group solidarity and out-group rejection in the region. However, as political change is one of the most significant features for the creation of new sociolinguistic meanings, the concern is that the ongoing political conflict in the region may have triggered changes in previous ideologies of cosmopolitanism found in Catalonia. As such, this paper aims to answer the calls for more research to assess the impact of the 2017 unilateral referendum on the language ideologies and everyday language practices present in the territory.

This paper reports on a research project which set out to explore the language ideologies of highly educated undergraduate students in the Barcelona region, namely students from the University of Barcelona (UB), the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) and University Pompeu Fabra (UPF). Using the semi-structured interview method, this research provides a snapshot of the ideologies held by a group of twenty-four undergraduate students towards the languages which they come into contact with in their daily lives, in particular, Catalan and Spanish. Through giving a voice to these individuals this investigation illustrates the relationship between the respondents’ level of support for the Catalan and Spanish languages and how this has been (re)framed by the ongoing political conflict in the territory. (284)

Anna Tudela-Isanta.

Catalan is granted the same official status than Spanish in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands. However, the sociolinguistic situation in both regions is vastly different: in Catalonia, Catalan has a relatively normalized status, while in the Balearic Island the local government has shown discontinuous support of the regional language. This has also had a great impact on speakers’ language ideologies. This communication aims to underline the dissimilarities between language ideologies associated to Catalan in Palma de Mallorca and Barcelona, the capital cities of the regions mentioned before. This investigation analyses fully comparable data on language ideologies that underline the differences in both cities. To this end, focus groups with undergrad students from universities in both cities were organised, which provided speeches through which they manifested their language ideologies.

The results underline the differences in language ideologies towards Catalan in Barcelona and Palma. In Palma, Catalan is considered an authentic language and anonymity is associated with Spanish, the language occupying a big part of the public spaces (such as mass media, administration). This is not the case in Barcelona, where Catalan is given the role of anonymous language; it is perceived as the language of the public administration and education, although it is still a symbol of identity.

Chabier Gimeno-Monterde.

Aragonese is a threatened Romance language, immersed in a process of substitution by the official language, Spanish. The number of speakers that had maintained their transmission, mainly in rural areas, has extremely declined over last century. In the meantime, revitalization efforts have incorporated new speakers, especially in urban areas. Due to the weak and conflicting institutionalization of the language and its unconcluded standardization, the new speakers move between three poles: the supremacism of the official language; the purism positions of the binomial legitimacyauthenticity; and the hierarchical management of revitalization.

In this context, a research whose objective is to analyze the linguistic ideologies of the new speakers of Aragonese is presented. The qualitative analysis of the interviews allows us to categorize the discourses and to establish profiles of new speakers, according to their ideologies and declared practices.

The results show that a profile of urban new speakers, with medium and high linguistic competences, and proactive attitude when contact with native speakers, brings a new perspective, which go beyond purism and institutionalization without participation of other new speaker profiles. Firstly, they promote ‘safe spaces’ in cities and socialization events in rural enclaves, organized together with native speakers. And, secondly, they implement a global and inclusive culture, which is oriented towards universal and ubiquitous access to the language and which makes local varieties visible and connected to each other. This is allowing an empowerment of all its speakers, through horizontal socialization practices and avoidance of previous conflicts in the revitalization; as well as the current emergence of the language in the public sphere.

Summing up, these linguistic attitudes favor the establishment of stable urban communities of practice, which share with young rural native speakers the will to maintain the intergenerational linguistic transmission. A more favorable scenario for future linguistic mudes emerges today.

References
Austin, P., & Sallabank, J. (Eds.). (2011). The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bourdieu, P. (1977). The economics of linguistic exchanges. Social Science Information, 16 (6), 645–668.
Costa, J. (2015). New speakers, new language: on being a legitimate speaker of a minority language in Provence. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 231, 127 – 145.
Costa, J. (2017). Revitalising language in Provence: a critical approach. New York: Wiley.
Dorian, N. C. (1994). Purism vs. Compromise in Language Revitalization and Language Revival. Language in Society, 23, 479-494.
Fishman, J. A. (1975). Language and Nationalism: Two Integrative Essays. Newbury House Publisher.
Lewin, C. (2017). Scholarship and language revival: Language ideologies in corpus development for revived Manx. Studia Celtica Posnaniensia, 2, 95-116.
Meyerhoff, M. (2002). Communities of practice. En J.K. Chambers, P. Trudgill, and N. Schilling (eds.), The handbook of language variation and change (pp. 526-548). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Moseley, C. (2010). Atlas of the world’s languages in danger. Paris: UNESCO. O’Rourke, B., & Ramallo, F. (2011). The native-non-native dichotomy in minority language contexts: Comparisons between Irish and Galician. Language Problems and Language Planning, 35, 2, 139-159.
Pujolar, J., & Puigdevall, M. (2015). Linguistic mudes: how to become a new speaker in Catalonia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 231, 167-187.
Reyes, A. et al. (2017): L’aragonés y lo catalán en l’actualidat. Analisi d’o Censo de Población y Viviendas de 2011. Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza.

Ada Bier.

The overall research project framing the present contribution fits within studies on plurilinguals’ language attitudes, studies on language learning motivation, studies on lifelong language learning and, more specifically, on language learning in old age. The research is being carried out in the Friulian-speaking area of Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy.

This presentation will mainly focus on the first phase of the research which, starting from Baker’s study (1992), consists in a quantitative investigation on elders’ and young adults’ perceptions (attitudes, motivation, identity, perceived competence) with reference to the languages they are in contact with in their everyday life (Italian, Friulian, English, other languages present in the area: German, Slovene), with a view to defining the elders’ and the young adults’ profiles, while identifying the most relevant similarities and differences between the two categories of subjects, with special regard to their relationship with the local minority language (Friulian) and the global international language (English).

Starting from these findings and within the framework of Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self System (2009), Ushioda’s concept of “person-in-context relational view of motivation” (2009), and Henry’s recent theorising on the Multilingual Motivational Self System (2017), the second phase of the research envisages a series of qualitative interviews aimed at exploring elders and young adults’ language selves and the interrelationship between them, acknowledging the tight link between motivation, self and identity (cf. Cardona, Luise 2019). Initial findings from the second phase will be presented, together with a preliminary discussion of possible implications for language teaching within an intergenerational and local-global perspective.

References
Baker, C. (1992). Attitudes and Language. Multilingual Matters.
Cardona, M.; Luise, M.C. (2020). “Language learning in old age. Linguistic autobiographies in applied linguistics”. Mosaic, monograph issue (in print). Soleil publishing.
Dörnyei, Z.; Ushioda, E. (Eds.) (2009), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 215- 228). Multilingual Matters.
Henry, A. (2017). “L2 motivation and multilingual identities”. The Modern Language Journal, 101(3): pp. 548-565.

2.3.


4 sessions x 15'

Ingeborg Birnie.

The sociolinguistic profile of Gaelic has been changing significantly over the last few decades and nowhere has this been more obvious than Comhairle nan Eilean Siar (CnES), the only one of Scotland’s 32 local authorities where a majority of the population selfreported to be able to speak the language (National Records of Scotland, 2015) but where language shift has resulted in English being the dominant language in all domains (Birnie, 2018; Munro, Mac an Tàilleir, & Armstrong, 2011; NicAoidh, 2006)

This presentation discusses the findings of an ethnographic study exploring the use of spoken Gaelic in different public settings in communities across CnES. Language use surveys were used to provide an overall indication of the contribution of Gaelic to the social linguistic soundscape of the different communities as well as a wider indication of the sociolinguistic vitality of the language. This study indicated that language shift is ongoing, with low intergenerational levels of Gaelic language use, as well as the limited use of the language in day-to-day public domain interactions. Gaelic was, however, more extensively used in spontaneous interactions during community social events, such as concerts and dances, where larger numbers of individuals contributed to the social linguistic soundscape. This allowed these events to act as overt indicators of the individuals within the community willing and able to use Gaelic and these can.

The findings of this study have significant implications for the way Gaelic language vitality is imagined and recognises the importance of community social events as a mechanism for language maintenance and revitalisation.

References
Birnie, I. (2018). ‘Gàidhlig ga bruidhinn an seo?’ – Linguistic practices and Gaelic language management initiatives in Stornoway, the Western Isles of Scotland. (PhD). University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen.
Munro, G., Mac an Tàilleir, I., & Armstrong, T. (2011). The State of Gaelic in Shawbost. Teangue: Sabhal Mòr Ostaig.
National Records of Scotland. (2015). Scotland’s Census 2011: Gaelic report (part 1). Retrieved from Edinburgh:
NicAoidh, M. (2006). Pròseact Plana Cànain nan Eilean Siar: a’ chiad ìre – rannsachadh air suidheachadh na Gàidhlig anns na h-Eilean Siar. In W. McLeod (Ed.), Revitalising Gaelic in Scotland. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.

Tihomir Rangelov.

Ahamb is an endangered language spoken by around 950 people on the small Ahamb Island in the Republic of Vanuatu in the South Pacific. Ahamb is one of around 120 indigenous languages spoken in a country, where Bislama is the lingua franca, while English and French are the principal languages of education. The Ahamb Language Documentation Project was initiated in 2017 with the primary goals of documenting and describing the language. At the community’s request, revitalisation efforts were also included in the project. This talk presents the challenges and successes of these efforts.

The revitalisation of Ahamb has been dependent on varying community and institutional attitudes towards the vernacular, and vernacular education more specifically. The variation in attitudes may be attributed to changing migration and marriage patterns, the rapid spread of new technologies (e.g. the recent arrival of Internet connection), considerations for purely practical matters in the domains of education and religion, and lack of awareness of the importance of vernacular literacy.

Institutional support was found to be particularly instrumental. The teachers at the local primary school have been less enthusiastic about vernacular education than the kindergarten teachers, who do not depend on the same strict institutional endorsement as primary school teachers.

To counteract the doubts regarding the importance of vernacular literacy, an approach of raising awareness and community engagement was adopted. One initiative, which appears to be particularly useful, is the dissemination of literacy materials through social media. Initially conceived out of necessity, when a planned field trip, during which literacy materials were to be delivered, was cancelled due to COVID-19, the initiative has proven to be a suitable venue for dissemination and feedback collection. It has also created the base for an online community of Ahamb speakers who live on Ahamb Island and speakers in diaspora.

Ibon Tobes, Yetlanezi Velázquez-Cárdenas.

Podemos considerar que culturas y lenguas son fruto de la convivencia entre los seres humanos y su entorno natural. Son dos realidades entrelazadas: los territorios con mayor diversidad biológica albergan gran diversidad lingüística. Cada idioma es resultado de una coevolución materializada en formas únicas de entender, narrar y relacionarse en el mundo, un reservorio de conocimiento de historia natural y cultural sublimado en palabras. Este es el marco conceptual para estudio de la diversidad biocultural. Desde su enfoque se busca deconstruir la escisión artificial entre ser humano y naturaleza, proponiendo estrategias para enfrentar la doble y simultánea extinción global de culturas y biodiversidad.

Asumiendo estas premisas y con una aproximación etnobiológica-lingüística, trabajamos paralelamente en una comunidad indígena kichwa amazónica y en una comunidad de colonos mestizos en la región costera de Ecuador. Mediante talleres participativos recopilamos el conocimiento vinculado a ríos y peces, ambos esenciales como sustento vital. Con los kichwas, generamos un proceso de recuperación y revalorización de su lengua, un complejo sistema de conocimiento fruto de siglos de coexistencia: recopilamos una extensa lista de nombres locales de peces, cuya etimología encierra un profundo conocimiento biológico; trazamos un robusto sistema de clasificación biológica con diferentes niveles y agrupaciones; registramos una nomenclatura binomial muchas veces equivalente a la científica. En contraste, en la comunidad de los colonos mestizos con apenas 40 años viviendo en ese territorio, el conocimiento vinculado a ríos y peces era pobre, difuso y confuso, sin un sustento lingüístico que posibilitara un conocimiento fino o una relación más allá de lo puramente utilitario. En este contexto, posibilitamos una construcción comunitaria de conocimiento a través de talleres de identificación y nominación de las especies. En ambas experiencias se entregaron los resultados para que este conocimiento etnobiológico-lingüístico quedara en manos de las comunidades como material educativo.

2.4.


4 sessions x 15'

Janine Strandberg.

This paper explores sociophonetic variation and change in Finland-Swedish, a variety of Swedish spoken in Finland by 290,000 native speakers. Urbanization of coastal regions of Finland in the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in many traditionally Swedish-speaking communities becoming bilingual or majority-Finnish speaking (Tandefelt, 1996; Finnäs, 2015). As a result of widespread linguistic exogamy and the dominance of Finnish in the public domain, native and fluent bilingualism amongst Finland-Swedish individuals is becoming increasingly common.

Focusing on the phonetic consequences of increasing bilingual identity amongst Finland-Swedes, the project examines variation in the vowel production of monolingual and bilingual Finland-Swedish individuals. 141 participants from four different Swedishspeaking regions were included in the study, allowing for the consideration of regional variation between traditionally heterogenous Finland-Swedish communities. Sociolinguistic interviews were used to obtain recordings of participants’ speech in three different speech contexts: a) in spontaneous speech; b) while reading a passage of text; and c) while reading minimal pairs. These three contexts are thought to simulate speakers’ continuum of formality, providing insight into intra-speaker variation in different interactions (Eckert and Labov, 2017).

The data consist of samples of first and second formant frequencies from five allophones; [æ], [œ], [ø], [e], and [ɛ]. Preliminary results of linear mixed model analyses indicate that while speech context is often an important predictor for variation, interaction effects of context and language background, regional background, or age are also evident in the phonetic data.

References
Eckert, P. & Labov, W. (2017). Phonetics, phonology, and social meaning. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 21(4). 467—496.
Finnäs, F. (2015). Tvåspråkiga familjer och deras betydelse för demokratin. In Tandefelt, M., (ed.), Gruppspråk, samspråk, två språk. Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland.
Tandefelt, M. (1996). På vinst och förlust: om tvåspråkighet och språkförlust i Helsingforsregionen. Forskningsrapporter, 35. Svenska Handelshögskolan.

Beñat Muguruza and Garbiñe Bereziartua.

This study looks at the effect of home transmission in the use of the Basque informal form of address hika. The situation of this form of address is at best vulnerable in most places of the Basque Country, but in a few areas it still remains strong. It is the case of Azpeitia, a town where hika is extensively used by people of all ages. The gender factor is crucial to analyse its use, as men tend to use it more than women, and this gap is gradually increasing among the younger generations. 838 adults answered a questionnaire with a wide variety of items, but here we focus on the intergenerational transmission of hika; more specifically, we seek to know to what extent is hika passed on and how it affects the fact of having been addressed in hika on passing it onto the next generation. The results show that having been addressed in hika at home has an influence to use the same form of address with one’s children. This happens no matter the gender of the speaker or the hearer, and the association is statistically significant in most relationships. However, once again gender is key in this issue: our data indicate that in all possible combinations sons get more hika than daughters, and in most cases fathers use it more with their children than mothers. However, considering the high use of hika among young male friends in Azpeitia (Muguruza, Bereziartua & Etxeberria, 2020), we call into question whether its health lies fundamentally on parent-to-child transmission, and probably broader concepts like language socialisation should be taken into account to get a better grasp of this phenomenon.

References
Muguruza, B., Bereziartua, G. & Etxeberria, J. (2020). “Ez da mattetzen erakutsi”. Azpeitia, hitanoa eta generoen arteko arrakala. Uztaro (accepted but not published yet).

Jelske Dijkstra, Liesbeth van der Zijden, Mirjam Blumenthal.

Multilingual children need to be assessed in all their languages if one suspects a language disorder (Genesee et al. 2004). This is particularly important because phonological differences in languages can lead to a difference in the order and rate of phonological acquisition of similar phonemes amongst bilinguals (e.g. MacLeod et al. 2011). Most tests, however, are based on monolingual norms. Furthermore, when one of the languages of the child under assessment is a minority language, often an appropriate assessment instrument is not even available for that language, let alone knowledge on the phonological development.

This paper discusses the Frisian adaptation of the multilingual assessment instrument Speakaboo. Speakaboo (see https://www.speakaboo.io/) is an app that speech and language therapists use to assess the phonological development of multilingual children aged between 2;6- 6 years old. It currently contains 18 languages, including Dutch. Frisian is a minority language spoken in the province of Fryslân, in the north of the Netherlands. Almost 50% of the population of young children in the province is raised in Frisian (Provinsje Fryslân, 2015). Next to Frisian, these children also acquire Dutch from a young age onwards. In terms of phonology, Frisian and Dutch share many consonants, although Frisian has some typical consonant clusters. Frisian also has more vowels and diphthongs than Dutch. This paper addresses the adaptation process of the Frisian version of Speakaboo and provides the first results of a large-scale study amongst young Frisian-Dutch bilinguals in which the Frisian and Dutch versions of the app are used. The findings are important for speech and language therapists working with young Frisian-speaking children who have a phonological disorder. Moreover, our experiences in the adaptation process and bilingual assessment of Frisian-Dutch children will serve as an example for the adaption of Speakaboo to other minority languages.

Christian Pischlöger.

The Volga-Kama region in Russia is home of Uralic (e.g., Mari, Udmurt, Mordvin) and Turkic speakers (e.g., Tatar, Bashkir and Chuvash). Russian is contact language in the region for centuries and bilingualism a widely spread phenomenon – at the latest with the emergence of the Soviet Union, where Russian became official language and the “language of interethnic communication” in multiethnic Russia. Although the peoples mentioned above have titular republics – Mari El, Udmurtia, Republic, Mordovia, Tatarstan and Bashkiria – where their respective languages de jure are official languages besides Russian, de facto the latter is prevailing in all official and many unofficial domains. The region is characterised by asymmetric bilingualism, i.e. minority speakers usually speak Russian besides their mother tongue, while Russians rarely have the need or a reason to learn a minority language. All the languages of the region are endangered to a greater or lesser extent.

The internet is often regarded as a chance for minority languages to improve visibility and prestige with comparatively low efforts and costs. Informal language use on social media enables also those people with little formal education in their mother tongue to read and write it on a daily basis. But the internet makes not only languages more visible (or audible in the case of online radio) but also “linguistic reality”, e.g., code-switching. The current paper gives an overview of contact phenomena like translanguaging and associated language attitudes which are of great significance for language maintenance and revitalization. The research is based on analysis of existing literature and own research, supported by corpora of the VolgaKama languages. Preliminary results are: language purism and prescriptivism are widespread and enforced by the predominant standard language ideology in Russia; the resulting negative language attitudes can hinder people to use their language instead of empowering them.

2.5.


4 sessions x 15'

In spite of their huge success during colonial years, publications using indigenous African languages in South Africa have generally experienced a decline. This decline is worrying because during colonial years newspapers such as Koranta ea Becoana (Bechuana Gazette), Imvo Zabantsundu (Native Opinion) and Izwi Labantu (Voice of the People) played a pivotal role as viable platforms for the indigenous communities who had been pushed beyond margins of citizenship. However, at the moment the new media has transformed audience habits of obtaining information, providing both opportunities and challenges for media organizations. The problem for publications publishing in indigenous African languages is further complicated by the fact that English continues to dominate as a lingua franca in spite of the fact that South Africa has adopted eleven (11) official languages. This article presents insights derived from an exploratory study concerning the viability of the newspapers that use indigenous African languages in South Africa in this era of new media and an increasingly English-speaking world. Using an information rich sample consisting of media academics, media and communication practitioners and African language experts, the article discusses the language situation and media landscape in South Africa before focusing on whether the current technological development could present a much-needed lifeline for the stymied indigenous language media. Theoretically, the article is predicated on Media Convergence Theory.

Key words: Indigenous language media, convergence, new media, African languages, media audience, English in Africa, language education.

References
ANC (2010). Discussion paper on media transformation, ownership and diversity tabled at the ANC National General Council (NGC) 20-24 September 2010. Available from: www.anc.org.za/docs/discus/2010/mediad.pdf
Arua, A (2019 perscom) during deliberation at an international conference on “English and the dynamics of global access” hosted by the Department of English at the University of Botswana, Gaborone, 19-21 June 2019.
Flew, T, (2008), ‘New media: an introduction’ Oxford University Press. Pg. 1-403.
Habte A. & Wagaw, T. (2003), Education and social change, in Mazrui A and Wondji C. (eds) General History of Africa South Africa: New Africa Books, pp.678-701.
Horowitz. I.L. (1991), Communicating Ideas: The politics of scholarly publishing. London: Transaction Publishers.
Mbeki, T. (2005), SABC 3 seven o’clock news [Television news]. South Africa: SABC
Motsaathebe, G (2011a), Book publishing in indigenous languages in South Africa, Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 10 (1) pp. 115-127
Motsaathebe, G (2011b), Journalism education and practice in South Africa and the discourse of the African Renaissance, Communicatio: Journal of Communication Theory &Research, 37(3) pp.381-397
Motsaathebe, G (2018) When the subaltern speaks: re-examining indigenous language media as alternative public sphere during colonial South Africa, Journal of African Media Studies. 10 (2):169-182
Motsaathebe, G. (2010), Language, afrikology and the tremor of the political moment: English as a main language of discourse in Africa, Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. 9(1): 96 -109
Oso, L. (2006), A political economy of indigenous language press in Nigeria, in Salawu. A(ed). Indigenous Language Media in Africa. CBAAC, pp. 175-195.
Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (pp. 169-186). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Picard, R. (2011). Business models, workflows, and value chains in media firms. in the economics and financing of media companies: Second Edition (pp. 25-58). Fordham University. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x0d0c.5 Prah, K. (1999), African renaissance or warlordism? in Makgoba W. (eds.) African Renaissance. Cape Town: Mafube Publishing, pp. 37-61.
SAHO see South African History Online (2014) The Black Homeland Citizenship Act of 1970. Available from: http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/black-homelandcitizenship-act-1970
Salawu, A. (2005), Essentials of indigenous languages on journalism education in Nigeria. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307746948_Essentials_of_indigenous_languages_t o_journalism_education_in_Nigeria (accessed on December 16, 2017).
Salawu, A. (2009), The growth and development of African media studies: perspectives from Nigeria. Journal of African Media Studies 1(1):81-90.

Aida Martori Muntsant.

In the digital era, media are not only radio stations, television channels or newspapers, but they should be multimedia (or even transmedia) projects that use different platforms to disseminate contents. This could be a threat by minority languages, because of a globalized online sphere where ‘findability’ of small projects is a challenge.

Looking at the concept of Catalan communication space (Gifreu&Corominas, 1991; de Moragas, 1988) this paper has the goal of reinterpretate it taking into account the situation in the digital environment. The authors took into account the identity, the language, the territory and the opinion leaders, and nowadays the concept should be updated considering that media are not operating in a space with borders (as traditional media do).

The methodology will include the review of literature but also interviews to experts in the subject to offer new interpretations about Catalan communication space, with the focus on the digital context (Dr. Emili Prado and Dr. Maria Corominas will be contacted). This research will also look at how traditional Catalan media are adapting to the digital era, and how Minority Language Media (MLM) are making their contents visible on the Internet. This includes traditional media outlets, such us the Catalan public broadcasting corporation but also public and private local media, that develop an important role in the media system.

Finally, this paper will analyse new projects in order to promote the Catalan language in the digital environment, specially Youtube and social networks with the aim of reach young people. Canal Malaia is a new project with the goal of make Catalan youtubers and influencers visible. The reinterpretation of the Catalan communication space should take into account the traditional media adaptation to the digitalization, but also new ways of communicating, specially between youngers that not necessarily have to be part of a media outlet.

The research offers a new approach of how Catalan linguistic sphere is being reshaped in the digital environment.

Itziar Azpeitia-Iruretagoiena.

It is generally acknowledged that the audio-visual landscape is undergoing rapid and constant changes. Traditional and new modes of production, transmission and reception cohabit, while new powerful companies have entered both the global and local arenas. The amount and variety of content that we currently have access to can be really overwhelming. In this complicated and competitive context, public media companies that broadcast in minority languages are struggling to find their place and to respond to the new challenges that these shifts entail.

In this paper I will reflect on the core role that those companies play in the development and dissemination of minority languages and cultures. Moreover, the challenges that these tasks entail and some proposals to respond to them will be presented. For this purpose I will focus on a particular case, namely the Basque language and the Basque public broadcasting company, Euskal Irrati Telebista (EITB). Nevertheless, the reflections posited could be equally valid for other minority languages and public broadcasters.

I have conducted research on these issues for many years, both as a TV professional and academic researcher. The final text of my doctoral thesis, Beyond negativity on television entertainment: positive perspectives and research on its contribution to public television (Azpeitia, 2019), compiles some of the results of the comprehensive study carried out on these matters and other related ones. (https://addi.ehu.es/handle/10810/38589).

This paper summarises and explains some reflections and conclusions regarding the significance of public broadcasting media in the development of minority languages, according to the current audio-visual context and taking into account even the latest changes that are happening in this lively, rapidly changing, ecosystem.

Ainara Santamaria-Barinagarrementeria and Jone Miren Hernandez.

En los años 1980 el País Vasco asiste a la emergencia de un nuevo sujeto político y social: el conocido como “joven radical vasco” (Kasmir 1999). Un sujeto inmerso en un contexto de creciente conflicto político, procesos de desindustrialización, profunda crisis económica y altos índices de desempleo. Inspirado en el movimiento punk vigente en la escena joven internacional, “the radical Basque youth” supone un repulsivo para la cultura juvenil y la cultura vasca en general. Surgen nuevas expresiones socio-culturales de carácter alternativo y reivindicativo, muchas de las cuales ponen el foco en la situación crítica en la que se encontraba el euskara (Urla 1999). Hablamos de fanzines, gaztetxes, radios libres y espacios resignificados (como los bares y las calles) como prácticas y ámbitos que contribuyeron a la creación de identidades no étnicamente marcadas para la juventud de la época. Como Sharry Kasmir (1999, 199) explicaba: “punk offered a style, stance a performance that rejected ethnic and lineage requirements while it signaled Basque identification”. De este modo la juventud de la época tenía acceso a una identidad más abierta y porosa capaz de albergar por igual tanto a jóvenes de familias autóctonas como a aquellos que provenían de familias migradas al País Vasco desde diferentes puntos de España durante los años 1960-1970.

Cuatro décadas más tarde proponemos una incursión en la cultura juvenil a la luz de los resultados de una investigación sobre uso del euskara y juventud vasca realizada en cuatro localidades de la Comunicad Autónoma del País Vasco (CAPV). Para ilustrar esta comunicación hemos decidido centrarnos en la localidad de Zornotza (Bizkaia). Analizando la importancia de la música en el municipio, la estética que domina la cultura juvenil del lugar y la relevancia de las lonjas o locales de ocio (privado) juvenil, intentaremos acercarnos a las ideas dominantes en los discursos de la juventud local en relación al euskara. En contra de lo que sucedía hace cuarenta años, el trabajo de campo realizado nos permite observar una re-esencialización de la identidad vinculada a la lengua vasca. Paralelamente cabría constatar la emergencia de un discurso individualista sobre la lengua. En este contexto el artículo toma una pregunta como punto de partida: ¿qué queda en la actual escena vasca juvenil del “do it yourself” punk, y que vislumbramos hoy del “self-made man” paradigma del individualismo?

13:30-14:30

Etena


14:30-15:30

Keynote


Joan Pujolar

Universitat Oberta de Catalunya

In this presentation I am going to propose that research and activism associated with minoritized languages incorporates and contributes to contemporary debates on subjectivity.

Since the publication of the works of Foucault and Butler, as well as the development of Post-Colonial Studies and Cultural Studies, Issues of subjectivity have been central to social movements devoted to civil rights associated to gender, sexuality, race or disability. Both research and political rhetoric on subjectivity have proven to be productive in the multiple intersectional projects to understand and fight subordination. Generally speaking, the subjectivity perspective has supplied the means to develop the principle that the personal is political, from which it has been possible not just to document how domination works, but also to articulate new horizons of possibility in which social actors became visible as possible agents of social change.

However, movements associated with language revitalization or advocacy have not been as receptive to these ideas, while many social movements have in turn developed and acted without a linguistic awareness, and hence, have often contributed to uncritically reproduce linguistic inequalities.

I would argue that there is much to lose from this situation. On the one hand, just like feminism required at some point to deal with the internal hierarchies of race, from which the perspective of intersectionality developed, all these movements only ignore at their detriment the subtle and deep forms of reproduction of inequalities that are structured through the uses and choices of languages in today’s globalized world. On the other hand, minoritized language movements suffer a significant impairment if they do not address the specifics of the social experience of linguistic appropriation, as research on new speakers has amply shown. When some policies (typically bilingual education) fail to reverse the decline in language use, many
minoritized communities are stuck in the corner provided by general descriptions and language surveys that fail to address the situated experience of speakers, and hence, to identify the means through which people could invest more in learning and using the languages.

I will develop my argument by considering the causes why language movements have not generally been receptive to other social movements (mainly due to their investment in classical nationalism), while worthy counter examples can be mentioned.

I will also consider some of the challenges facing subjectivity paradigms, namely the risk of downplaying the need to articulate communities and collective action and hence play in the hands of neoliberalism.

To conclude I mention experiences, research projects and ideas that I believe could help bridge the gap mentioned between language movements and social movements more generally.

15:30-16:00

Etena


16:00-17:30

Panel session 3


3.1.


Elin Haf Gruffydd Jones
Abiodun Salawu
Enrique Uribe-Jongbloed
-
Craig Willis
Miren Manias-Muñoz
Sergiusz Bober

This is one of two Panels proposed to the ICML by the IAMLMR to present its aims and objectives.

  • Chair: DR MIREN MANÍAS MUÑOZ
    University of The Basque Country

 

  • PROFESSOR ELIN HAF GRUFFYDD JONES
    Affiliations: Mercator, University of Wales Trinity Saint David
    elin.jones@uwtsd.ac.uk

    Title of paper: Out with the old, in with the new?: Mapping Key Concepts in Minority Language Media

  • PROFESSOR ABIODUN SALAWU
    Affiliations: ILMA, North-West University, South Africa
    salawuabiodun@gmail.com; Abiodun.salawu@nwu.ac.za

    Title of paper: Indigenous Language Media in Africa: Trajectory and Focus.

  • DR ENRIQUE URIBE JONGBLOED
    Affiliations: School of Social Communication and Journalism, Universidad Externado de Colombia
    enrique.uribe@uexternado.edu.co

    Title of paper: Media and minority languages in Abya Yala: Different, Unequal and Disconnected.

The aim of this colloquium is to explore the trajectory that the research field of Minority Language Media has undertaken over the past four decades since its inception in the 1980s

  • (a) examine the key concepts, definitions, nomenclatures and theoretical frameworks that have informed the field’s development
  • (b) scope the geographical range and depth of research conducted in the field, with focus on African indigenous language, the Latin American context and Europe.

Since the early days of minority language media research (see Jones and UribeJongbloed (2013 eds) for more detailed account (1) ) there has been a strong Eurocentric or Western focus in both conceptual and contextual studies. As well as the overall Westernization factors that affect all academic disciplines – that we recognise – we identify three other specific reasons for this:

  • (a) the number of researchers that based at European universities and other research institutes in Europe, their contribution to the development of the field and their networked approach to the subject areas, often supported by European Union funding (such as the Mercator Network (2) );
  • (b) the nature of the undertaken in minority language media research, which has had a strong focus on applied research (as opposed to highly theoretical approaches) including engaged research, which is often rooted in the linguistic communities that are being researched and closely connected to players within them, as well as wanting to make a positive contribution to their development.
  • (c) although the field has grown in Europe, it is still a marginalised discipline and cannot command high levels of funding that are required for more intense international exchange including global travel to attend conferences, exchange projects, comparative field work etc.

This however is not to discountenance efforts being made in Africa, (South) America and Asia. Extended research essays, dissertations and theses have been written on the subject. In Africa, the first co-ordinated effort was Indigenous Language Media in Africa (Salawu, 2006) (3). It took another ten years before the second edited volume, Indigenous Language Media, Language Politics and Democracy in Africa (4) edited by Abiodun Salawu and Monica Chibita was published. The latest is Salawu, A. [Ed.] 2019. African Language Digital Media and Communication.

 

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

The researchers present at the Edinburgh Etxepare conference took the collective decision to set up the International Association for Minority Language Media Research (IAMLMR) as positive action to connect researchers of minority language media in all parts of the world because:

  • Researchers in several parts of the world have been producing important studies and critical reflections that should be circulated beyond their countries, states and world regions;
  • The focus in the field of Minority Language Media Research on applied and engaged research can be enriched through increasing the connectedness of our researchers and, in turn, our communities;
  • Factors such as migration, diaspora communities and global mobility require us to take resolute action to deepen our collaboration with each other, in order to understand our own contexts in more meaningful ways;
  • Global challenges such as climate change, access to education, unequal distribution of economic resources, low levels of literacy, inequalities and other adverse conditions are threatening our current linguistic diversity. Access to media – and access to research of the media – are important aspects of analysing and finding solutions to these challenges.
  • The sharing and transfer of best practice, research and studies (conceptual and contextual) should happen within relationships of mutual respect and curiosity between researchers in all parts of the world. global.

The International Association for Minority Language Media Research’s definition of media includes all media, including social media, non-professional (volunteer or user generated) media, factual and journalism, audiovisual fiction, digitisation etc, across all platforms and in all parts of the world.

The International Association for Minority Language Media Research’s definition of language includes all language communities who self-define as minority, minoritized or non-hegemonic, including those who self-define as indigenous. Wit is not confined to written or to spoken languages, and oral/non-written languages as well as signed/non-spoken languages are included.

 

(1) See Introduction by Browne and Uribe-Jongbloed in Jones & Uribe-Jongbloed (eds) Social Media and Minority Languages http://www.multilingual-matters.com/display.asp?k=9781847699046
(2) www.mercator-network.eu
(3) Salawu, A. [Ed.] 2006. Indigenous Language Media in Africa.
(4) Salawu, A. and M. Chibita [Eds] 2016. Indigenous Language Media, Language Politics and Democracy in Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan

This is the second of two Panels proposed to the ICML by the IAMLMR to present its aims, objectives and current research.

  • Chair: PROFESSOR ELIN HAF GRUFFYDD JONES.
    Mercator, University of Wales Trinity Saint David

 

  • SERGIUSZ BOBER
    European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI)
    bober@ecmi.de

    Title of paper: On the efficiency of monitoring mechanisms: minority language media in ECRML and FCNM

  • MIREN MANIAS-MUÑOZ
    University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)
    miren.manias@ehu.eus

    Title of paper: Public service broadcasting and minority languages. A comparative approach to Scotland and the Basque Country

  • CRAIG WILLIS
    European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI)
    willis@ecmi.de

    Title of paper: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Minority Language Media in Europe: a comparative analysis

     

Abstract of the colloquium

Both the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML; adopted in 1992, in effect since 1998) and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM; adopted in 1994, in effect since 1998) are considered among the most important legal tools in addressing minority issues in the European legal sphere. Although the foci of protection of these instruments are different – regional / minority languages versus minority communities – to a certain degree their provisions remain in a close conceptual relationship. One of such areas are regulations concerning media (see for example article 11 of ECRML and article 9 of FCNM), with the emphasis on such aspects as the right to creation and use of media by persons belonging to minority communities, and the role public authorities are expected to play when it comes to the creation of different types of media in protected regional or minority languages. But how are state parties implementing regulations concerning minority language media, and how are recommendations resulting from monitoring activities being considered?

The media, besides, is an important tool for the use and normalisation of a language, creating a collective imaginary and the strengthening of national identity. Moreover, media also play a key role in promoting specific consumption habits to the audience. This is particularly important within children and young people, since they will determine the survival of a language. Contemporary broadcasting is undergoing a period of change. This has been driven by political, economic and technological factors and the establishment of new rules on funding, production, distribution and consumption of audiovisual works. It is a time of cuts, of crises, of frustration and uncertainty. Therefore, the proper functioning of public broadcasting service within an ecosystem of audience fragmentation and high competition for attention has become increasingly challenging for minority languages. This is the case in Scotland and the Basque Country. While the Gaelic language TV BBC Alba (2008) is making big efforts to find a way of engaging and retaining the audience with a very limited budget, the Basque TV ETB (1982) is – with a far larger budget – wasting a wonderful opportunity to become a model for minority language public TV.

This panel also looks at the initial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and consequent lockdown/social distancing measures on minority language media outlets and institutions across Europe in the first half of 2020. Providing an overview of the types of unique challenges these institutions face, we focus on logistical aspects, content related issues, financial implications, plus relations with majority populations/central government. In this, differentiations are made between minority situations with and without kin-states, as well as between public and private media spheres. For this aim, a series of expert interviews of multiple minority language situations across Europe have been used, to incorporate the direct and indirect experiences of scholars and practitioners during this time.

3.2.


Anik Nandi
Ibon Manterola
Paula Kasares
Facundo Reyna
Maite Garcia

Drawing on the multilingual repertories of our presenters, the panel will follow a bilingual format where PPTs will be in a different language other than speaker’s vehicular language of presentation (language combinations are indicated in parenthesis).

  • PAULA KASARES
    Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa (UPNA / NUP)
    paula.kasares@unavarra.es

    Title of paper: Children, recipients and agents: multiagency and multidirectionality in Basque language socialization (Basque / English)

  • MAITE GARCIA RUIZ & IBON MANTEROLA
    Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU)
    maite.garciaru@ehu.eus

    Title of paper: Ideological components of multilingual family language policies and the role of Basque (Basque / English)

  • ANIK NANDI
    Seminario de Sociolingüística, Real Academia Galega
    aniknandi@gmail.com

    Title of paper: Reclaiming voice through bottom-up family language policies: Role of pro-Galician parents in urban Galicia (English / Spanish)

  • FACUNDO REYNA MUNIAIN
    Universität Bremen facundoreynamuniain@gmail.com

    Title of paper: Intergenerational transmission of language and identity in the Galician community of Buenos Aires (Spanish / Basque)

 

Discussant: Dr. Ane Ortega (Begoñako Andra Mari Irakasle Eskola, BAM)

 

Abstract of the colloquium

The preservation of cultural and linguistic diversity in today’s world is a major concern to scientists, governments, community leaders, and advocates of linguistic human rights. Under the effect of globalization, the pressure of dominant languages on minority languages is relentless, partly because many users of smaller languages can see more opportunities if they shift to a dominant one (Wei 2018). Despite these pressures, however, minority language speakers to varying degrees maintain or reclaim their languages as active agents through everyday interactions and through the transmission of the language within the home.

This panel aims to understand the dynamics of minority language speaking families and their grassroots-level language practices in the home and community to either maintain or revive the minority language in four Spanish-dominated bi(multi)lingual settings: Galicia, Navarre, the Basque Autonomous Community and Buenos Aires (Argentina). The papers in this panel will explore these dynamics through the lens of language policy, broadly understood as any conscious decision or choice made about language(s) by social actors such as the state, community or individual (Spolsky 2018). While language policy research has received considerable scholarly attention over the past number of decades, much of the focus has been on policy as a structured macro-level phenomenon (e.g. government policies) and grass-roots policies (e.g. family language policies) remain largely understudied. Although research on multilingual families is now a well-established domain of enquiry, Family Language Policy (henceforth FLP) emerged as an independent field only in the last decade. It quickly became an important domain in minority language research taking account of the overt decisions parents make about language use and language learning as well as implicit processes that legitimise certain language practices over others in the home (Fogle 2013). Drawing on ethnographic mix-methods approach, we will reveal how these parents across different geo-political settings exercise their agency and become policymakers in their homes and in the community. The endeavour is also to reveal the key challenges they come across while implementing these policies.

As such, the presentations and discussion of this panel will allow us to (1) evaluate how bi(multi)lingual parents create visible and/or invisible language policies across indigenous and diasporic contexts; (2) predict the kind of strategies parents use individually and/or collectively to contest the linguistic governance of dominant languages; (3) identify the factors responsible for success or failure of these strategies; (4) examine whether grassroots level mobilisations by various policy actors (i.e. parents, activists and educators) serve to promote the use of a minoritized languages.

 

Bibliography

Fogle, L. W. (2013). Parental ethnotheories and family language policy in transnational adoptive families. Language Policy 12 (1): 83-102. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-012- 9261-8

Spolsky, B. (2018). A modified and enriched theory of language policy (and management). Language Policy, 323-338. Doi: 10.1007/s10993-018-9489-z.

Wei, L. (2018). Community Languages in Late Modernity. In J. W. Tollefson & M. Pérez-Milans (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Language Policy and Planning (pp. 591–609). Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190458898.013.32.

3.3.


Charlotte Shelleck
Jone Miren Hernandez
Jaime Altuna
Jone Goirigolzarri-Garaizar

  • CHARLOTTE SELLECK
    Affiliations: University of the West of England
    Charlotte.Selleck@uwe.ac.uk

    Title of paper: Caught in the Linguistic Crossfire: Young people in the Welsh language context.

    Abstract: Drawing on a research with young people in the Welsh context, this paper will highlight the conundrum facing young people; they are both the ‘linguistic movers and shakers’ (Eckert 1997: 1) yet also berated for their language use and blamed for an apparent demise or deterioration in language. The paper will argue that young people both reflect the past (in their upbringing), exercise their agency in using ‘nonstandard’ language, and give an indication as to where language change is headed.

  • ADRIANA PATIÑO-SANTOS
    Affiliations: University of Southampton
    A.Patino@soton.ac.uk

    Title of paper: The aspirations of youth: English for future life plans in Catalan schools.

    Abstract: This paper discusses the role of English in the life project narratives of students in the Catalan education system. “Generation” (Edmunds & Turner 2002) will be used as a construct to make sense of the projected lives of youngsters.

  • JONE MIREN HERNANDEZ
    Affiliations: Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea
    jm.hernandez@ehu.eus

    Title of paper: Gazteentzat da (hizkuntzaren) plaza (Giving young people a voice).

    Abstract: This paper aims to critically reflect on the current linguistic situation in the Basque Country. To do this, we will rely on the accumulated experience of ethnographic research conducted with adolescents in the last five years. We will listen the voice of adolescents, review the questions, rethink the forms of research, and underline the need to give importance to practices, subjectivities, and ideologies related to youth cultures.

     

Abstract of the colloquium

The present world presents new and often paradoxical characteristics such free movement and hard borders, possibilities for social networking and rising individualism, calls for diversity and homogeneity, etc. In the coming years we will surely see more novelties, driven by climate change, health emergencies and other phenomena beyond what we imagine. The changes experienced in recent decades have influenced the ways of being, acting and living of young people. It has for instance introduced innovations in the linguistic ideologies and practices of those youngsters living in territories where revitalization processes of minorized languages are taken place (Pujolar et al, 2010; Hernández, 2011).

Being and acting as a young person is a social, cultural, economic and even a political position that changes over time. Young people create their identities and practices (Bucholtz 2002) and to do so, they look both at adults and at their peers.

When dealing with linguistic research, it is important to pay attention to diversity, change and fluidity, since languages and their forms of use are dynamic (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 2013). Therefore, when analysing the social and linguistic practices of young speakers of minoritized languages it is necessary to listen to what they have to say and understand their situated context. This knowledge will be fundamental to rethink and plan further the revitalization processes of minoritized languages.

This colloquium aims to address the issue of young people and minority languages through a dynamic and contextualized perspective. To do so, we will focus on three specific realities -Wales, Catalonia and the Basque Country- and in three main topics. First, we will analyse the main sociolinguistic changes that have occurred in the last three-four decades in the three sociolinguistic contexts. Second, we will reflect on the culture and identity of young people and the place of languages in both their culture and identity. Third, we will look forward and start imagining the path we should be shaping in order to make progress in the three revitalisation processes. In particular, we want to begin by defining the research questions we should be asking to achieve active speakers of the minority language among youngsters.

The panel will be organised as follows.

  • 30-40’: Short communications dealing with topics 1 and 2.
  • 50-60’: Colloquium focussed on topics 2 and 3.

 

Bibliography

Bucholtz, Mary (2000). Language and Youth Culture, American Speech 75, 3: 280-283.
Eckert, Penelope (1997). Why ethnography? Ulla-Britt Kotsinas,Anna-Brita Stenstrom, and Anna-Malin Karlsson (eds.) Ungdomsspråk i Norden: 52-62. Stockholm: Stockholm University.
Eckert, Penelope & McConnell-Ginet, Sally (2013). Language and Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Edmunds, June, & Turner, Brian S. (2002). Generations, culture and society. Open University Press.
Hernández, Jone M. (2011). Baina gu ere gazteak izan ginen. Gazte euskalduna izatearen esanahia atzo eta gaur, Euskera, 55-2: 579-607.
Pujolar, Joan; Gonzalez, Isaac, Martínez, Roger (2010) Les mudes lingüístiques dels joves catalans in Llengua i ús. Revista Tecnica de Política Lingüística, 48: 65-75.

3.4.


Josu Aztiria Urtaran

  • MADDI ETXEBARRIA BILBAO
    Elhuyar Aholkularitzako koordinatzailea
    m.etxebarria@elhuyar.eus

    Adimen artifizialak euskararen erabilera-plan eta interbentzioetan ekar ditzakeen onurak eta arriskuak.

  • JOXEAN AMUNDARAIN
    Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia – Normalizazio Programen arduraduna

    Adimen artifiziala eta Euskara: herri-erakundeen papera.

  • JOSU WALIÑO PIZARRO
    PuntuEus Fundazioko zuzendaria
    josu@domeinuak.eus

    Adimen artifiziala eta ingurune digitala

  • XABIER ARREGI
    EHUko Ixa Taldeko koordinatzailea
    xabier.arregi@ehu.eus

    Euskarak adimen artifizialean izan jauzia: datozen erronkak eta arriskuak

 

Abstract of the colloquium

Azken hamarkadan euskarazko hizkuntza-teknologietan ibilbide oparoa egin da, eta beste hizkuntzetatik (ingelesetik eta gaztelaniatik, kasu) oraindik urrun bagaude ere, beste hainbat hizkuntza gutxituk eta estatu-hizkuntza askok ez duten oinarri teknologikoa dugula esan daiteke.

Azken urteotan, teknologia asko eta asko, besteak beste, adimen artifizialaren bidez bultzatu eta indartu dira, eta zehazkiago ikasketa sakoneko (Deep learning) teknologien bidez.

Ikasketa sakona ikasketa automatikoaren (Machine Learning) adar bat da, zehazki sare neuronal sakonak (Deep Neural Networks) erabiltzen dituena. Sare neuronal bat gizagarunaren jarduera simulatzeko sortutako teknologia da, eta matematika-eredu sofistikatuak erabiltzen ditu datuak modu konplexuan prozesatzeko. Sare neuronal sakonak gaur egun hizkuntza-teknologien adar guztietan ari dira aplikatzen, eta emaitza oso onak lortu dira orain arte; beraz, itxaropentsu egoteko arrazoiak baditugu.

Etorkizunari begira, adimen artifizialak ireki ditzakeen bideak ikusirik, hainbat agertoki aurreikusten saiatu naiz. Alde batetik, uste dut Internet euskararen erabileraren behatoki gisa indartuz joango dela, hau da, euskara nola eta zenbat erabiltzen den xeheago jakiteko baliabide erraldoia bihurtuko da; beraz, Internet corpus gisa ustiatzeko tresnak findu eta hobetu beharko ditugu. Bestetik, adimen artifizialak sare neuronal eta ikasketa automatikoaren bidez aukera teknologiko berriak ekarriko ditu, eta, orain arte bezala, prest egon beharko dugu euskararentzat ekar ditzakeen aukerak baliatzeko. Aukera batzuk zehazten ere saiatu naiz:

Adimen artifizialak hizkuntzan izaten ari den garapen disruptiboa eraldaketa handiak ekarriko ditu. Berrikuntza teknologikoen norabidea ongi zehaztea da euskal gizarteak duen erronka handienetako bat, izan ere, aukera handiak ekarri ditzake gizarte-berrikuntzaren alorrean, eta zehazki euskararen garapen-prozesuan. Esaterako, adimen artifizialak eta hizkuntza-teknologiek orain arte pentsaezinak ziren aukera ekarri ditu enpresa eta erakundeen hizkuntzen-kudeaketan nahiz euskararen erabilera areagotzeko estrategietan.

Honenbestez, teknologiaren aurrerapenak barneratu, aplikazio-eremu berriak bilatu eta kasu arrakastatsuak ezagutzea berebiziko garrantzia du arlo honetan lanean dabiltzan ikertzaile, aholkulari, kudeatzaile eta ikasleentzat.

Sare neuronaletan oinarritutako itzultzaile automatikoen emaitza bikainek aukera berriak sortzen dituzte eta euskarazko lan-zirkuituak areagotzeko bideak errazten ditu. Hala nola, euskarazko dokumentuen ekoizpena handitzeko, euskarazko testuen ulermena areagotzeko eta ofimatika-tresnetan integratzeko aukera teknikoak zabaltzen direnez interbentzioeremu interesgarria da erakunde publikoetan eta enpresa pribatuetan normalizazio-planak garatzen ari diren profesionalentzat.

Era berean, transkripzio-teknologien emaitzak ere asko hobetu dira (hizketatik testura bihurtzen duten teknologiak) eta erakunde publikoetako batzarrak eta bileren edukiak irisgarriagoa egiteko eta edukiak azkarrago sortzeko bideak irekitzen ditu. Gainera, transkripzio-teknologien eta itzulpen automatikoaren konbinazioarekin bilerak eta batzarrak euskaraz egin arren gaztelaniaz zuzenean edo diferituan emateko erraztasunak handiak dira. Herritar ororen hizkuntza-eskubideak errespetatuaz euskarazko jarduna lehenesteko aukera ematen du honek.

Amaitzeko, testuen meatzaritza eta Big Data tekniken bidez testu-masa handiak tratatzeko aukerak ireki dira, eta honek aukera handiak eskaintzen ditu erakunde bateko hizkuntzajarduna modu sistematiko eta monitorizatuan neurtzeko. Hau da, laginketetan oinarritu beharrean datu errealetan eta objektiboetan neurtzeko aukera ematen du.

Laburbilduz, testuen meatzaritzak, itzulpen automatikoak eta hizketaren teknologiek euskarazko jarduna areagotzeko, euskararen normalizazioan sakontzeko eta interbentzioproiektu berritzaileak garatzeko aukera paregabeak eskaintzen dizkigu. Eta azkenik, hizkuntza-teknologiek datu errealetan oinarrituta ikasten dutenez, pentsatzekoa da erabiltzen nahiz teknologien bidez hedatzen den euskara estandarragoa egiten joango dela, hau da, tresnak elikatzeko erabiltzen ditugun datuak erabileran oinarrituko dira, eta erabileran ere eragingo dute era berean. Hori guztia neurtzea oso garrantzitsua izango da.

Aipatutako gaiak izango ditugu mintzagai antolatu nahi dugun panelean.

3.5.


Marijo Deogracias-Horrillo
Ana Tamayo-Masero
Enrique Castelló-Mayo
Merce Martínez-Lorenzo

  • MERCEDES MARTÍNEZ-LORENZO
    Universidade de Vigo (University of Vigo
    memartinez@uvigo.es

Inclusive Subtitling in Galician (Quantity and Quality): Should Oral Language Errors be Corrected or Reproduced in the Subtitles?

  • ANA TAMAYO
    Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU)
    ana.tamayo@ehu.eus

Estrategias para la visibilización de las lenguas de signos en España

  • MARIJO DEOGRACIAS HORRILLO
    Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU)
    mariajose.deogracias@ehu.eus

Azpidatziak euskara sustatzeko eta ikustarazteko tresna Euskal Telebistan

  • ENRIQUE CASTELLÓ MAYO
    Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
    enrique.castello@usc.es

El subtitulado audiovisual como garante de la diversidad identitaria europea

 

Abstract of the colloquium

Panel honen helburua da kultura eta hizkuntza gutxitu edo ez-hegemonikoak ikusentzunezkoetan ikustaraztea ahalbidetzen dituzten estrategia tekniko eta sormenezkoen inguruan hausnartzea. Hala, euskara, galiziera, katalana (Katalunia eta Valentzia) eta zeinuhizkuntzen (ZH) kasuak aztertu dira kulturen, hizkuntzen eta komunikazio-modalitateen irudikapen hegemonikoei nola aurre egin proposatzeko, eta modu horretan aukera bilatu hizkuntza gutxituen, adierazpen artistikoen, giza komunikazioaren eta inklusioaren arteko lotura berri eta garrantzitsuak ezartzeko. Horretarako abiapuntua eman digu “EUVOS. PATRIMONIO CULTURAL INMATERIAL. PARA UN PROGRAMA EUROPEO DE SUBTITULADO EN LENGUAS NO HEGEMÓNICAS” ikerketa-proiektuak zeinak ikus-entzunezko azpidatzien aldeko apustua egiten duen ezaugarri linguistikoei eusteko tresna gisa, baita hizkuntza gutxituek beren alde erabili dezaten ere.

Ildo horretan, adibide zehatz bi aurkeztuko dira: Galiziako telebista publikoak (TVG) eta Euskal Telebistak (ETB) azpidatziez egiten duten erabilera. Izan ere, azpidatziak ikusentzunezko irisgarritasuna ahalbidetzeaz gainera, hizkuntza gutxituaren ikusgarritasunean laguntzen dute. Planteatuko da estrategia linguistikoa eta ikus-entzunezko irisgarritasuna estrategia berean landu behar direla.

Horren erakusle da, esaterako, zeinu hizkuntzarekin sormen industria egiten hasi dena. Alegia, zeinu hizkuntzak hizkuntza gutxitu gisa, eta itzulpenetik eta irisgarritasunetik harago, ikus-entzunezko ekoizpenean komunikazio hizkuntza gisa aintzat hartzen direla, baldin eta horrela lantzen badira ekoizpenaren hasieratik (eta ez, posprodukziora mugatu, gehienetan egiten den bezala). Modu horretan eginez gero, eta panelean erakutsiko den bezala, ikusentzunezko eduki horrek audientzia gehiagorengana iristeko aukera izango du, ez bakarrik zeinu hizkuntza behar duen audientziarenga, baizik eta modu inklusibo batean entzumen arazoak dituen eta ez dituen audientzia barne hartuz; hau da, hizkuntza gutxitua izan dadin gehiengo batengana iristeko bidea.

Aurkezpenen ikerketa-emaitzak hainbat azterketa deskriptibo (kuantitatiboak eta kualitatiboak), esperimental eta zenbait arloren –hala nola, irisgarritasuna, ikus-entzunezko itzulpegintza eta soziolinguistika– berrikusketa bibliografietatik eratortzen dira. Hala, elkarrizketa honetako ikerketen ikuspegien eta testuinguruen aniztasunak aurrera egiteko eta hobetzeko proposamen ugari eta berritzaileekin laguntzea espero da.

Azken batean, solasaldi honen inguruan aurkeztuko diren komunikazioei esker ondoriozta daiteke, tradizioz gorrentzat edo entzumen arazoak izan dituzten pertsonentzat izan diren ikus-entzunezko itzulpen- eta interpretazio-modalitateak (azpitituluak eta zeinu-hizkuntza) hizkuntza eta kultura gutxituak ikusarazten laguntzen duten bide bi direla. Alde horretatik, hizkuntza gutxituen ikerkuntzan bide berri eta berritzaileak zabaltzen dira, irisgarritasunarekin, ikus-entzunezko komunikazioarekin eta hizkuntza gutxitu eta ezhegemonikoak ikusarazteko beharrarekin lotutako praktikak bateratzeko.

Martxoak 25 osteguna

9:00-10:00

Keynote


Ana Deumert

University of Cape Town, South Africa.

My presentation takes inspiration from a particular line in the call for papers: ‘minority languages are part of emerging new global economic, aesthetic and cultural trends and power relations’.

Foundational to my thinking are the material-symbolic structures of inequality that give shape to the persistent invisibility of global linguistic diversity online (Deumert 2020, in Bridging Linguistics and Economics, ed. by Vigouroux/Mufwene). While visibility indicates presence and being-there, invisibility is more difficult to grasp. As Jacques Derrida (1994) argued in Spectres of Marx: what is invisible is not necessarily absent, rather it exists as a complex, shadowy and haunting presence, linking past and present in complex ways, and challenging us to think carefully through the political economy of representation.

The focus of my reflections will be on Wikipedia, the world’s largest multilingual reference website. Wikipedia was founded twenty years ago and provides scholars with an immense participatory archive of multilingual online engagement and semiosis. I have followed various African language Wikipedias since 2010, and will take this opportunity to revisit my earlier work (Deumert, Sociolinguistics and Mobile Communication, 2014), developing not only a longitudinal analysis of collaborative knowledge practices, but also reflecting on their aesthetic and cultural dimensions. Of particular interest to me are resistance aesthetics on Wikipedia; that is, practices that seek to subvert and challenge the coloniality and ‘epistemic injustice’ (Fricker, Epistemic Injustice, 2007) that is inscribed in the longstanding Eurocentric genre of an ‘encyclopedia’; as well as associated ideologies that see languages as bounded and standardizable objects (see Moore, 2015, on ‘reactionary multilingualism’).

10:00-11:30

Parallel session 4


4.1.


4 sessions x 15'

Laura Nap, Frans Hiddink, Maaike Pulles.

Multilingual approaches within mainstream education are focused on instruction, provided to groups of students with a range of different language proficiencies, from monolingual to bilingual or multilingual (Tait & Gleeson, 2016). These students come from a variety of educational and linguistic backgrounds and, for some of them, the language of instruction differs from their home language(s). The imperative to understand and accommodate the educational needs of these students has impelled a stream of research on linguistically inclusive pedagogy (Roth et al., 2012), mostly aimed at raising proficiency in the language(s) of instruction. However, less is known about the use of home languages in the process of learning and knowledge building (Walsweer, 2015; Duarte, 2016).

A current Design Research-project (McKenney & Reeves, 2012) called ‘More opportunities with multilingualism’ (www.3mproject.nl) in the only official bilingual province of the Netherlands (Fryslân), aims to bridge this gap. The core principle is to create classroom contexts of dialogic education (Alexander, 2008), since this may benefit both language use and knowledge building. Within communities of learners, teachers and researchers are working together in iterative cycles to improve dialogic multilingual classroom practices by including the home languages of all students.

In order to achieve this, multilingual lessons in the participating primary schools are videotaped, transcribed and analysed on multilingual and discourse practices of both teacher and students. Depending on the development of the corona-pandemic, which influences the continuation of our design research, we will present how participants’ practices, in terms of translanguaging practices, turn complexity, turn-taking procedures and speech actions either differ between different schools in the first cycle or develop over the course of our research project. It will be discussed how such a holistic design and methodology contribute to our understanding of how minority and other home languages are used and stimulated in primary schools.

Key words: Dialogic education, Multilingual education, Design research Translanguaging, Discourse analysis.

References
Alexander, R. (2008). Culture, Dialogue and Learning: Notes on an Emerging Pedagogy. In N.Mercer & S. Hodgkinson (Eds.), Exploring Talk in School: Inspired by the Work of Douglas Barnes (pp. 91-114). London, United Kingdom: Sage.
Duarte, J. (2016). Translanguaging in mainstream education: a sociocultural approach. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(2), 150-164.
McKenney, S. & Reeves, T.C. (2012). Conducting Educational Design Research. Oxon, United Kingdom: Routledge.
Roth, H.J., Bainski, C., Brandenburger, A. & Duarte, J. (2012). Inclusive Academic Language training: Das europäische Kerncurriculum zur durchgängigen bildungssprachlichen Förderung (EUCIM-TE). In: Winters-Ohle, Elmar, Seipp, Bettina and Ralle, Bernd (eds): Lehrer für Schüler mit Migrationsgeschichte. Sprachliche Kompetenz in Kontext internationaler Konzepte der Lehrerbildung. Münster: Waxmann Verlag, 93-111.
Tait, C. & Gleeson, M. (2016). Linguistically Inclusive Pedagogy. Oxford University Press.
Walsweer, A.P. (2015). Ruimte voor Leren: Een etnografisch onderzoek naar het verloop van een interventie gericht op versterking van het taalgebruik in een knowledge building environment op kleine Friese basisscholen. Groningen Dissertations in Linguistics, 134.

Idurre Alonso-Amezua, Agurtzane Azpeitia-Eizagirre, Olatz Bengoetxea-Manterola.

Arrue proiektuan (2018) aztertzen diren datuek Euskal Autonomi Erkidegoko Lehen Hezkuntzako LH 4 eta Derrigorrezko Bigarren Hezkuntzako DBH 2-ko ikasleen hizkuntza-erabilerari buruzko diagnosi orokorra eskaintzen digute, baita euskarazko erabileran dauden gabeziak nondik osa litezkeen lantzeko oinarri estatistiko sendoa ere. Ildo horretatik, “ahozko komunikaziorako konpetentzia praktikoa eta eraginkorra eskuratzeko” (Heziberri, 2020) bidea egiteari heldu nahi izan diogu, batik bat, Euskal Herriko testuinguru soziolinguistiko erdaldunenetan. Horretarako, 2017an abiatu genuen Berba-lapiko ikerketa-proiektua: hezkuntza esparruan ahozko euskararen erabileran eta konpetentzian sakontzeko proposamena da, bereziki testuinguru soziolinguistiko erdaldunei erreparatuko diena. Ikastetxetako errealitateen diagnositik abiatuz eta metodologia berriak frogatuz ahozko konpetentzietan aurrerapenak bilatzen ditu.

Dolzek (2006) zioen moduan, haurrak gero eta lehenago eskolatzen dira, eta ondorioz, eskolan garatzen dute beren ahozko hizkuntza. Hortik abiatuta, ezinbesteko bihurtzen da eskoletan ahozko adierazmena irakastea. Gainera, ikasle guztiei aukera berdinak eman nahi bazaizkie, funtsezkoa da ahozko adierazmena berariaz lantzea.

Hizkuntzen irakaskuntza “erabileran oinarrituta” eraiki daitekeela ulertuta, eta horretarako plangintza nahiz metodologiak zorroztu daitezkeela kontuan hartuta, Berba-lapiko proiektuan testuinguru soziolinguistiko erdaldunenetan kokatzen diren bi ikastetxetan bideratu da ekintza-ikerketa: lehenik, irakasleek ahozko hizkuntza nola landu ohi duten aztertu da, eta ostean, material didaktikoa prestatu da ahozko ekoizpena ardatz hartuta. Material hori inplementatu eta ikertu egin da, materialaren eragin-aztarnak identifikatu ahal izateko.

Hiru urteko proiektu honetan metodologia ezberdinak frogatu dira. Azken bi urteetan garatutako metodologia berrietako bat aurkeztuko dugu, hizkuntza errutinetan oin hartzen duena (Bruner, 1989) eta bertatik ateratako ondorio nagusiak partekatuko dira.

 

References
Bruner, J. (1989). “Acción, pensamiento y lenguaje”. Capítulo 10. Alianza, Madrid
Dolz, J. (2006).” Ez da nahikoa hizkuntza bat erabiltzea; mintzamenak irakasgaia ere izan beharko luke”. Euskonews & Media.
Eusko Jaurlaritzako Hezkuntza eta Hizkuntza Politika eta Kultura saila & Soziolinguistika Klusterra (2018). EAEko ikasleen euskararen erabilera eskola-giroan (2011-2015): Arrue proiektua. Eusko Jaurlaritzaren Argitalpen Zerbitzu Nagusia. Vitoria-Gasteiz.
Heziberri 2020. Hezkuntza-eredu pedagogikoaren markoa. Eusko Jaurlaritza

Irina Moira Cavaion.

The language educational policy in Europe returned after a long pause to speak in favour of multilingual education (COM (2018) 272) with a great emphasy on language awareness development in schools and a call to the importance of offering a wide range of languages in addition to the main global languages of communication and a specific reference to regional or minority languages. Nevertheless and so far, plurilingualism including regional minority or heritage languages in mainstream schools is rarely reported in research. Historical scholars standing for more language diversity in school curricula in Italy like Freddi (1983) and De Mauro (2003) already underlined in the past the great potentiality of minority languages learning and teaching as an intercultural pedagogical tool. Finally, the linguist Claire Kramsch in a recent paper (Kramsch, 2019) enquiring the very aim of langauge education for students of the 21st century speaks of the importance of learning languages not for personal achievement but following a principle of wellbeing and responsability for relationships.

Within this theoretical framework this research regards the five-steps-method (Cavaion, 2012) used to introduce the Slovene language as a regional minority language to children attending the 5th class (10 years) of two maistream Italian primary schools (38 children) who commented through their language portfolio and class discussions their experience of regional minority language learning compared to their English learning where the comments and reflections are exceptionally positive, all sustaining how much minority language learning is far more responsive of their communication and relationship development needs than the learning of English.

The researcher concludes sustaining the learning of a regional and minority language at primary school level in meanstream education as a greatly efficace communicative and intercultural educational tool which could and should accompain if not even precede the learning of an international language.

Nicole Dołowy-Rybińska.

The paper concerns minority language revitalization efforts in the situation of broken intergenerational transmission.

Lower Sorbian is one of the most endangered languages of Europe. Although official data states that there are approximately 4.000 Lower Sorbian speakers, in reality, there may be less than 400 people who can communicate in Lower Sorbian. Among them, there are people of the oldest generation who had Lower Sorbian as the family language, and those who learned this language at school or during courses. Lower Sorbian language revitalization date back to the end of 1990s’ and the creation of the education system ‘Witaj’ [Welcome] based on the Breton Diwan immersion education. After more than 20 years of these efforts, the number of those who can be called ‘new speakers’ of Lower Sorbian and who acquired language through formal education and are using it is minimal. However, there are also those who started to speak Sorbian outside of formal education.

My presentation is based on the fieldwork in Lower Lusatia, analysis of the ‘Witaj’ education system, and interviews with new speakers of Lower Sorbian. I will discuss such aspects of becoming a new speaker of a minority language as motivation to learn and to use it, sentiment towards heritage language, language engagement, struggling with being recognized as a minority language speaker. I will also analyze Lower Sorbian new speakers’ language trajectories. All these themes will be presented against the background of the official minority language education problems as well as new speakers bottom-up ideas to support the language use and create intra-group relationships and common identity through the ‘communities of practice’.

4.2.


4 sessions x 15'

Sara Mitschke/Mičkec.

The proposed paper concerns family language policy in a European autochthonous minority-majority language context. It focuses on research on minority language maintenance and transmission in mixed-language families in Upper Lusatia in Germany. I am going to discuss the language attitudes and ideologies towards Upper Sorbian and German and analyse the way in which they influence the transmission of the minority language to the next generation.

The Sorbs are a Slavic minority in the eastern German federal states of Saxony and Brandenburg. However, the intergenerational transmission of the Sorbian language has been widely maintained only in a part of the Upper Sorbian linguistic territory. Although the attitude towards Sorbian in general terms often is positive, even in this region, many factors weaken the position of Sorbian vis-a-vis German, including language ideologies which result in strategies of language separation, in accordance with linguistic repertoires of all present persons, and in strategies limiting the use of Sorbian to situations in which every present person speaks Sorbian. Whereas official language maintenance and revitalisation efforts focus on the formal educational context, individual family language policies can be observed through everyday home language practices.

My paper is based on research conducted in 2020/2021 in families with caregivers that have different original linguistic repertoires (Upper Sorbian-German or German). Using data from participant observations in home settings and linguistic biographies obtained in narrative interviews I investigate the shaping of family language policies and discuss the role that language attitudes and ideologies on the part of native Sorbian and native German-speaking caregivers play for language choices in the home.

 

Rahel Beyer.

The Eastern part of the Lorraine region (French) is one of the cultural-ethnic minorities that have arisen through cession of territory. Since 1945 its dialects, including Moselle-Franconian and Rhenish-Franconian, although being germanophone, are part of the French diasystem (again). After World War II community members suffered heavy suppression and stigmatization due to the dialects’ relationship to German. This then lead to language shift. When in the 1970s a renaissance of regional languages evolved throughout France, activists in Lorraine outlined and spread a conceptual separation of their dialects from (Standard) German. The activists’ goal was to re-enable the identification with the dialects and thus enhance their use. According to their approach the autochthonous dialects are to be classified as an independent language which existed before the German Standard language (Beyer/Fehlen 2019).

In this paper, the circulating language ideologies, their (history of) spreading and their elements will be looked at in more detail. Data comes from a current project that documents and analyses the (socio)linguistic situation in Germanspeaking Lorraine on the basis of different speech events. Amongst others interviews on language biographies and language attitudes have been made (currently 77 informants, over 100 hours of recorded material). The analysis of these interviews reveals very fuzzy notions of the linguistic relationship as well as some inter- and even intra-speaker contradictions, e.g. the autochthonous dialect (or language respectively) is named divergently. Thus, these speakers seem to be comfortable having only a rough idea about the situation without an elaborate concept behind it.

 

References
Beyer, Rahel/Fehlen, Fernand (2019): Der germanophone Teil Lothringens. In: Beyer, Rahel/Plewnia, Albrecht (Hg.): Handbuch des Deutschen in West- und Mitteleuropa. Sprachminderheiten und Mehrsprachigkeitskonstellationen. Tübingen: Narr. p. 105- 154.

Christina Flora and Maria Tsigou.

The current project aims to approach the Arvanitika language, an endangered minority language in Greece, from an ethnographic and macro-sociolinguistic perspective. We are investigating the linguistic attitudes towards Arvanitika in certain regions of Attica and Boeotia in Central Greece, the Peloponnese in the South of Greece, as well as several regions of North-Western Greece, such as the prefectures of Florina and Preveza in Macedonia (region of Greece) and Epirus, respectively. The research questions aim to investigate the attitudes of the speakers towards their language, the attitudes of the non-Arvanitika speaking population towards the language, as well as the socio-political factors, which have contributed to its marginalization. We are going to present the results of the attitudinal closed-ended questionnaires from both the Arvanitika and nonArvanitika communities. Given that Arvanitika has not acquired a written status, further results of the closed-ended questionnaires will focus on the Arvanitika speakers’ preferences regarding a potentially appropriate future codification of the Arvanitika language.

4.3.


4 sessions x 15'

Salih Akin

The paper aims at evaluating the concept of linguistic loyalty through the sociolinguistic situation of three minority languages. These are Berber, Kurdish and Romani. The three languages have in common that they vary, are minoritized and/or generally deprived of recognition in the territories where they are spoken and are generally excluded from the school system. Nor do they have national institutions that could take charge of the main language planification’s fields such as standardisation, development of literacy, writing, terminology, neology, documentation, etc. In the unfavourable conditions in which these languages are evolving, it is the responsibility of the speakers and language professionals (writers, journalists, language activists, etc.) to carry out these tasks, leading them to develop strategies and means of intervention for their languages. The genesis of these interventions could only be understood if it were related to the loyalty that speakers show towards their languages, which they often consider to be the most salient marker of their identity. It is this correlation between identity and linguistic loyalty and its translation into attempts to revitalise minority languages that we wish to explore in this contribution.

We will first discuss the concept of ‘linguistic loyalty’ in the work of Weinreich (1963) and Fishman (1966) and the developments that the concept has undergone through its uses and applications in different contexts of migration and language contact. We will then analyse the concept through the situation of Berber, Kurdish and Romani. We will compare the language activism strategies implemented by their speakers in the different fields that may relate to language planning. We will focus in particular on the profile of the speakers, their motivations, their aims, the places and means used, and the impact of their interventions on the evolution of their languages.

Petteri Laihonen.

The Moldavian Csángó are an ethnically and linguistically heterogeneous group of Roman Catholics in North-Eastern Romania. In the Moldavian province of Romania, Roman Catholics make ca. 6 % of the population. One quarter of the Catholic population in Moldavia are bilingual in Romanian and the “Csángó way of speaking” (a variety of Hungarian, see Bodó & Fazakas 2018). This tiny linguistic minority of ca. 40 000 people has faced serious linguistic oppression in Romania. However, in 2001 the Csángós were officially recognized by the Council of Europe, the same year a Hungarian language revitalization program was launched in the Catholic villages. As a consequence, the state schools, where Hungarian is taught now have become the first public space in which the language appeared in Moldavia.

In this paper, I investigate the characteristics of the recent changes in the Moldavian Catholic communities brought about by hearing and using Hungarian/Csángó during public events. Following a recent extension of Linguistic Landscape studies, I focus on the new public Soundscapes now containing Hungarian/Csángó. The Soundscape of a minority language deserves attention as it illuminates new societal functions and offers a window to changes in its symbolic and functional status (see Scarvaglieri et al. 2013).

Data from school and cultural festivities in public spaces indicate different functions of standard Hungarian and the local Csángó variety. The data offers ample Soundscape examples of how minority language forms, previously confined to “home-language” functions, can enter new spaces and thus gain acceptance and prestige as well as re-activate passive speakers of importance.

References
Bodó, Cs. & N. Fazakas 2018. Enregistering authenticity in language revitalization. Journal of Sociolinguistics 22/5: 570–594.
Scarvaglieri, C. et al 2013. Capturing diversity: Linguistic land- and soundscaping in urban areas.
Duarte & Gogolin (eds.), Linguistic superdiversity in urban areas. Benjamins, 45–73.

H Steve Ndinga-Koumba-Binza, Virginie Ompoussa, Paul A. Mavoungou.

With 40 to 62 varieties of languages (Simons & Fennig 2017) for only 1.8 million inhabitants, Gabon is one of the most diverse nations in terms of spoken languages with a high language density. The limited number of speakers, coupled with an inexistent language policy and the lack of processes for native language promotion and sustainability, puts Bantu languages of Gabon in danger. In the absence of any language planning at government level, linguistic research outcomes have failed to provide tools to empower the people in the use of their native languages or to enhance a process of language revitalisation.

Meanwhile, Gabon has experienced a reawakening of dictionary production and the emergence of lexicographic research since 2000. Dictionaries are being compiled and printed for quite a good number of languages since 2002. This is called the modern era of Gabonese dictionary production as opposed to the early era, which contains the lexicographic works inherited from colonial administrators and religious missionaries.

This paper highlights the contribution of lexicographic research and dictionary production in enhancing language revitalisation in Gabon. It seeks to understand the impact of lexicographic activities on language promotion in Gabon for the past two decades. Although lexicography is an emerging research discipline in Gabon, it has produced a crop of literature and products that are used for igniting language revitalization through language teaching, language re-appropriation, dictionary culture and a sense of native language pride.

In addition to an overview of lexicographic outcomes, the paper provides an assessment of the strategic planning for Gabonese lexicography. The paper contributes to the current prospects of defining a multidisciplinary as well as transdisciplinary approach – which sees lexicography and phonetic sciences as key research disciplines – toward developing endangered languages of Gabon.

References
Simons, G.F. & C.D. Fennig. 2017. Ethnologue: Languages of Africa and Europe. 20th Edition. Dallas: SIL International Global Publishing.

Ernesto Llerena García.

Currently and burdened by the consequences of globalization processes, many of the world’s languages are at risk of disappearing or are disappearing entirely. In Colombia there are 65 indigenous languages and 2 Creole languages spoken by these ethnic groups throughout the country. The indigenous population totals one million four hundred thousand inhabitants. Several of these languages have many speakers and some sustainability (Achagua, hitnü, andoke, bora, miraña, ocaina, cocama, nukak, yuhup, siona, coreguaje, sáliba, cofán, muinane, cabiyarí, guayabero, ette or chimila, kamëntsá and Creole of San Basilio de Palenque. Creole from San Andrés Island); but many others are at risk of extinction (barí, uwa, sikuani, curripaco, puinave, cubeo, tucano, wounan, embera and ingano, nonuya, pisamira). In the last 20 years, laws and decrees have been enacted to protect these languages and ethnolinguistic investigations of these languages have been carried out by universities and research centers. Since the enactment of these language protection laws in Colombia, and the initiative of researchers and the community itself, various efforts have been made to revitalize these languages. This article makes a general review of these revitalization works carried out in recent years.

References
Bodnar, Y. (2010). Estudio comparativo de la vitalidad lingüística de 14 pueblos de Colombia realizado mediante una encuesta (autodiagnóstico sociolingüístico). Notas de Población, xl(97), 249-293.
Hale, K. (1992a). Language endangerement and the value of linguistic diversity. Language, 68 (1), 35-42.
Landaburu, J. (2004-2005). Las lenguas indígenas de Colombia. Amerindia (29/30), 3-22. Flores Farfán, J. A. (2013). El potencial de las artes y los medios audiovisuales en la revitalización lingüística. Revista de Lingüística Teórica y Aplicada, 51(1), 33-52.
Reyhner, J., Cantoni, G., St. Clair, R., & Parsons Yazzie, E. (Eds.). (1999). Revitalizing Indigenous Languages. Flagstaff, Arizona: Northern Arizona University

4.4.


4 sessions x 15'

Nici Beech.

Like many festivals around the world, the National Eisteddfod of Wales (“Eisteddfod”) planned for August 2020 was postponed for 12 months due to Covid19. Eisteddfod, dating back to 1176, is an 8-day annual multi-arts festival, held in a different part of Wales each year, co-curated and co-produced by a small professional team and thousands of volunteers. It attracts around 500,000 visitors of all ages, making it one of the largest cultural festivals in Europe. Eisteddfod has a renowned language policy, with Welsh as the exclusive language of all activities. It plays an important part in the calendar, commanding much media coverage, and is a unique opportunity to celebrate, discuss and re-affirm cultural and linguistic identity as a community. The range of live events includes music of all genres, literature, visual art, theatre, politics.

In 2020, therefore, Eisteddfod is holding a digital festival “AmGen” over a period of three months, using a range of world-wide platforms.

This paper will present findings from a case study which forms part of a three-year doctoral study (started on 1 April 2020) to explore digital opportunities as the Eisteddfod develops its strategies in the digital and international fields

The main research question addressed in this paper:

What are the effects on Eisteddfod, as a festival that uses exclusively a minority language, when it transfers from the traditional physical space to a completely digital sphere?

Themes addressed:

How was the artistic programme adapted for digital platforms? To what extent was the promotion of the digital event different to that of the physical festival? How far did AmGen succeed in reaching new, international audiences through the use of digital? What demographic were AmGen’s audiences and participants compared to Eisteddfod-goers in normal years? What media engagement did AmGen command? What was the extent of AmGen’s community engagement?

 

Dr. Adeniyi Akangbe.

Newspaper remains a major tool of information dissemination to the masses in every modern society. Several newspapers are printed in indigenous languages across Africa. With the advent of technology and its exponential growth however, every facet of human lives is significantly influenced and the print media is also not an exception. Technology has rapidly changed the way people communicate and conduct business. Therefore, there are palpable influence of technology on newspaper production and consumption. Audience, that is readers, are primary to newspaper. Without an audience, there would be no media and without a reader there would be no newspaper, audience is therefore important to media producers. Many indigenous language newspapers perennially suffer from patronage with dwindling readers. This, perhaps, has become more severe with the technological innovation of electronic publishing which was occasioned by online versions of newspapers. Aláròyé, a newspaper in Yoruba language in Nigeria, published by World Information Agent, is also not left out. Who is the audience of Aláròyé? How does the audience influence the content, emphasis, organisation, style, and tone of the newspaper, etc? The study is anchored by Audience Reception theory. Reception implies the response of audience to a work of art which, in this context, is Aláròyé and the audience is the reader. Response may be in term of how teeming the number of readers is, that is the level of acceptance by the people. Readers’ response may also register itself in term of likeness or preference for columns in the newspaper compared with others. It is on the strength of this that the study describes the audience of Aláròyé, classifies them, and examines its news consumption. This paper is divided into nine segments namely: Abstract, Introduction, Overview of indigenous language newspapers, Reception theory, Methodology, Data analysis, Discussion of findings, Conclusion, and Recommendations.

Key words: Audience, Indigenous language, Audience Reception, Aláròyé, Yorùba

Marina Massaguer, Avel·lí Flors-Mas and F. Xavier Vila.

Over the last decade, internet users who have gained popularity through the videos they post on YouTube have become new role models for young people (Ardèvol and Márquez 2017). These internet users, known as youtubers, inform and give advice on a wide variety of topics –from video games to cosmetics– and report on their own daily lives, often in a humorous way. Among Catalan youtubers it is common to argue that choosing Castilian for their videos involves reaching a wider audience and therefore more opportunities to monetize their activity. However, some of those who choose Catalan also achieve remarkable success in relative terms, as shown by their number of followers, views and interactions.

Our paper explores how Catalan youtubers –both those who use Catalan and those who use Castilian– legitimize their language choices. Our aim is to unfold language ideologies lying behind these choices. We have used a qualitative methodology based on netnography methods (Kozinets 2015) and critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2003). We have selected a sample of YouTube videos and interviews in the media by Catalan youtubers in order to analyse their discourse strategies to justify their choice. In parallel, we have conducted semi-directed interviews with youtubers to gain an insight into their perspective on the relationship between language and success in social media.

The data obtained show that Catalan is perceived as a marked language in an environment of strong minorisation. Given this, we delve into the intersection between language choice, language ideologies, and discursive strategies to legitimize language practices on YouTube.

References
Ardèvol, E., & Márquez, I. (2017). “El youtuber como celebridad mediática: entre la autenticidad y el mercado”. Rizoma, 5(2), 72-87
Fairclough, N. (2003). Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. Londres: Routledge.
Kozinets, R. V. (2015). Netnography: Redefined. Londres: Sage.

Daniel Cunliffe and Derek Lackaff.

This paper presents an initial attempt to frame the landscape of digital product development in minoritized languages. The availability of digital products – applications, content, and services – in a language is an important indicator of its “digital vitality”, and the ongoing development of digital products is often identified as a key factor in revitalization and maintenance efforts.

A common factor of minoritized languages is the absence of a significant commercial market for digital products in that language. Speakers of these languages are typically fluent in a majority language that constitutes a larger, dominant market. It is highly likely that this market is commercially viable and has greater productive capacity, so is able to produce a greater variety of products of a higher quality, which are more heavily promoted.

However, a market economy not the only model of digital product development. Alternative models might be based on a gift or barter economy, for example, through crowdsourcing or Open Source. In minoritized languages these models might replace or coexist alongside commercial models, potentially with different models being applied to the product in the majority and minoritized language.

Through an analysis of the literature and case studies, including app and Wikipedia development, this paper presents a multidimensional framework for examining the lifecycle of digital products in minoritized languages. It considers the phases of product initiation, creation, distribution, and maintenance, focussing on the political economy surrounding the creation of the minoritized language product, and its relationship to any majority language product.

The framework provides a lens for analysing previous digital product developments, but also has the potential for use as a scoping or planning tool for future developments. This may enable developers to better understand the options that are available and the trade-offs these may involve, resulting in the creation of more sustainable digital products.

4.5.


4 sessions x 15'

Robert Adam and Beverly Buchanan.

What are the frameworks for language shift and attrition within a minority sign lanugage community? What factors are catalysts for language shift and attrition in these communities? This paper will examine language shift and attrition (Ostler, 2011) in two sign languages:

  1. Australian Irish Sign Language (AISL) was exported to Australia by Dominican nuns who established a school for deaf children in 1875 (Adam, 2016). AISL has since come into contact with the majority sign language Australian Sign Language (Auslan), resulting in language shift, and is now a moribund sign language.
  2. Maritime Sign Language (MSL) which arrived in the maritime provinces in Canada as British Sign Language (Yoel, 2009), where after coming into contact with the majority sign language, American Sign Language, has also experienced community language shift and attrition.

In this paper, the respective histories of AISL and MSL will be described, the processes of language shift between the majority and minority sign languages will be compared and a thematic analysis of videorecorded conversations in both AISL and MSL will be discussed. Themes include language attitudes (within both the majority and minority groups), the experiences of the minority language community members, the actual language shift itself and the centrality of schools for deaf children in sign language transmission. There is also a human rights aspect to this research – these language communities are not identified in government policy or legislation: National Policy on Languages in Australia (1991) or the Accessible Language Act (2019) in Canada, both of which specifically mention the majority languages (ASL/LSQ and Auslan). Comparisons with other minority sign languages such as Finland Swedish Sign Language (Hoyer, 2012) will be drawn and a framework of language shift and attrition in sign languages proposed – reflecting the lower status of sign languages whether they are majority or minority community languages.

 

Jemina Napier.

This presentation will discuss a key theme that emerged from a study with deaf parents, their young children and adults who grew up with deaf parents, where narratives were elicited about their experiences of using sign language as a minority language in a deaf-hearing family, and the role of ‘child language brokering’ in their families. The key theme that emerged was in relation to shame and specifically language shaming (Adam, 2017; Piller, 2016, 2017a, 2017b). The presentation will draw on data from eleven semi-structured interviews with teenage and adult, deaf and hearing, sign language brokers in Australia, and group interviews and vignette and visual methods used with seventeen young hearing children and ten deaf parents in England. Examining the data through the lens of shame resilience theory (Brown, 2006), it can be seen that the adult former brokers may have experienced and reacted to language shaming as children but have overcome the shame as adults, developed ‘shame resilience’ and turned their experience of being bilingual and bicultural positively to their advantage by embracing their brokering role. The younger children and deaf parents also reported experiences of language shaming, and the parents reported on strategies for developing shame resilience for themselves and their children. All participants noted a sense of pride in using sign language as a way of positively responding to shame, rather than letting the shame negatively impact on their lives. Namely, members of deaf-hearing families recognised shame when they experienced it, and moved through it in a constructive way by recognising language brokering as a practice to push back against shame, which therefore allowed them to maintain their authenticity and grow from their experiences (Brown, 2007).

References
Adam, R. (2017). Sign languages as minority languages: What are some of the issues? Keynote presentation to the International Conference on Minority Languages, Jyväskylä, Finland, 28-30 August 2017.
Brown, B. (2006). Shame resilience theory: A grounded theory study on women and shame. Family and Society: Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 87(1), 43-52.
Brown, B. (2007). I thought it was just me: Women reclaiming power and courage in a culture of shame. New York: Penguin.
Piller, I. (2016). Linguistic diversity and social justice: An introduction to applied sociolinguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Piller, I. (2017a). Language shaming: Enacting linguistic subordination. Keynote presentation to the International Conference on Minority Languages, Jyväskylä, Finland, 28-30 August 2017.
Piller, I. (2017b). Explorations in language shaming. Language on the Move Blogpost, 28th September 2017. Available: https://www.languageonthemove.com/explorations-in-language-shaming/. Accessed: 11th November 2018.

Marie Pourquié and Amaia Munarriz Ibarro.

This study aims to show the challenges the Basque language and other minority languages of the world are facing within clinical settings, in particular regarding the assessment of language disorders such as aphasia. Generally, people speaking minority languages are bi/multilingual and they are frequently assessed (and treated) in the hegemonic language, given the scarcity of available and reliable assessment tools in the minority language(s). Thus, multilingual and multicultural diversity is not considered enough nor in research nor in rehabilitation and this critical situation has a negative impact on both research development and clinical practice (Beveridge and Bak, 2011).

We will present an ongoing project that aims to adapt the Comprehensive Aphasia Test for numerous languages of Europe in order to take into account the multilingual and multicultural diversity of Europe (Fyndanis et al.2016). We will show that adapting a test originally developed in English for other languages, in our case Basque, requires taking into account both psycholinguistic (word frequency, lenght, imageability) and sociolinguistic (dialects, language status) parameters in addition to the linguistic specificities of each language. We will explain and illustrate the decisions we had to take in order to get reliable measurements (imageability ratings, naming agreement) (Pourquié and Munarriz, 2018).

In conclusion, the development of reliable tools adapted for minority languages is particularly relevant to foster cross-linguistic research in neuroscience and aphasiology and to improve clinical practices in multilingual settings.

References
Beveridge, M., & Bak, T. (2011). The languages of aphasia research: Bias and diversity. Aphasiology, 25, 1451–1468
Fyndanis, V. et al. (2017). ICPLA. (2016). Cross-linguistic adaptations of The Comprehensive Aphasia Test: Challenges and solutions. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 31(7–9), 697–710
Pourquié, M., & Munarriz Ibarrola, A. (2018). Afasia euskaraz aztertzeko tresna berria bidean: CAT testaren euskal egokitzapenaren gakoak eta estandarizaziorako urratsak . Osagaiz, 2(2), 13-24

Ekaitz Santazilia.

En comparación con los de las lenguas circundantes, los textos históricos en euskera son menos numerosos y variados, con predominio de lo religioso, y un gran vacío, por ejemplo, en lo administrativo (Michelena, 1960).

Consecuentemente, en tanto que toda investigación histórica debe basar sus conclusiones en la documentación existente, se ha afirmado que, en el pasado, el empleo del euskera en un entorno distinto al familiar u oral, se ceñía al ámbito eclesial. Sin embargo, las (re)apariciones de textos euskéricos de corte administrativo de los siglos XVIII y XIX en Navarra y Lapurdi permiten atisbar un lugar para el euskera en determinadas relaciones comerciales, administrativas y políticas en esas épocas (Trebiño, 2001; Elosegi, 2018; Santazilia & Taberna, 2019), y replantearnos así algunos aspectos de la relación diglósica (Ferguson, 1959) entre el euskera y el castelano/francés.

Partiendo del análisis de dichas fuentes, en esta comunicación ponemos en duda que esa zona geográfica haya sido un oásis en el empleo de la lengua vasca en funciones administrativas, y defendemos que pudo ser una práctica más extendida. Asímismo, si bien el carácter fronterizo de la zona pudo influir en el empleo de la lengua vasca como lingua franca en las relaciones entre España y Francia, mostramos que la mayoría los textos administrativos no responden a dicha necesidad. Además, ahondaremos en los motivos políticos que pudieron favorecer el empleo de la lengua vasca en el ámbito administrativo, y describiremos el rol que han jugado algunos agentes implicados tanto en el uso de la lengua vasca, así como en la conservación de la documentación existente.

 

References
Elosegi, X. 2018. Le Dauphin: 1757ko gutuneriari buruzko osagarriak eta gogoetak, «Othoi çato etchera». Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.
Ferguson, Ch. A. (1959). Diglossia. Word, 15(2). 325-340. Michelena, L. (1960). Historia de la literatura vasca. Madrid: Minotauro.
Santazilia, E. & Taberna, M. (2019). Uscaldunac garen ezquero. Berako euskal testu administratibo berri bat (1822). Euskera, 64(2-1).
Trebiño, I. (2001). Administrazio zibileko testu administratiboak. Vitoria-Gasteiz: IVAP.

11:30-12:00

Etena


12:00-13:30

Parallel session 5


5.1.


4 sessions x 15'

Maialen Iñarra-Arregi.

During the last decades a great effort has been made to develop Basque-medium education. The spread of the Basque language in the education system has increased dramatically the proportion of Basque speakers among young people. Nevertheless, there is a great concern about the use of the language among the students.

The Arrue Project is a piece of research run from 2004 onwards between the Education Deparment of the Government of the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) and Soziolinguistika Klusterra, even if the results of the first investigation were published in 2011.

Its aim is to study what language use is like in the school environment among students in the BAC. That is to say, their language use with teachers and classmates when they are either in the classroom or on the playground is analysed, taking into account data gathered by the Diagnostic Evaluation.

The Diagnostic Evaluation is carried out by the Basque Government. They collect data from all the schools of the BAC where is offered the 4th year of Primary Education (9-10 years) and in the 2nd year of Secondary Education (13-14 years). Therefore, it is made possible to get information from almost all the students (over 18,000 in each year).

The most recent data have been collected in 2019, and the following research-questions have been designed in order to develop the main analysis: how has language use evolved since 2011? Do data from 2019 confirm the tendency in decline? Do they reveal the limitations of the Basque-medium education when promoting the use of Basque language among students?

In this paper, we will offer some elements to answer those questions.

Key words: Basque language, students, language use, school, Arrue Project, Basquemedium education.

References
Talking pupils. The Arrue Project 2011. Research results and contributions of experts (Basque Government and Soziolinguistika Klusterra, 2013).

Suzanne Dekker, Joana Duarte, Hanneke Loerts.

Successful implementation of alternative approaches for multilingual education requires positive attitudes towards pupils’ home languages and multilingualism in general (Cummins 2000). For students acquiring the language of schooling, positive attitudes towards the learning itself strengthen motivation and facilitate learning, while negative attitudes work adversely (Oxford, 2001). However, there are considerable differences between explicit and implicit attitudes towards the languages predominantly used in schooling, and migrant and minority languages mostly spoken at home.

The present study is part of the “More opportunities with Multilingualism” project, which aims to implement school pedagogies that include the students’ home languages as a resource to support multilingual pupils. The main purpose was to examine children’s implicit and explicit language attitudes towards the prevalent minority and migrant languages in the project schools. In this paper we will show the development of students’ implicit attitudes (measured via Implicit Association Test (IAT: Greenwald et al., 1998)) and explicit attitudes (measured via questionnaire) and after participating in project 3M for over a year.

The questionnaires indicated a neutral attitude towards migrant and minority languages, as well as the language of schooling. Preliminary IAT results revealed a minor preference for standard Dutch accents over both Moroccan and Frisian accents. Further in-depth analysis are currently being conducted to examine the relative impact of various factors on the students’ attitudes and relative preferences.

References
Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Clevedon: Multilingual matters.
Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. Journal of personality and social psychology, 74(6), 1464.
Lee, J. S., & Oxelson, E. (2006). “’It’s not my Job”: K-12 Teacher attitudes towards students’ heritage language maintenance.” Bilingual Research Journal 30 (2): 453-477.
Oxford, R.L. (2001). Language learning strategies. In R. Carter & D. Nunan (Eds.), Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (pp. 166– 172). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Myrthe Coret-Bergstra, Mirjam Günther-van der Meij, Joana Duarte.

In this presentation language attitudes of pupils resulting from a project on multilingual secondary education in the offically bilingual province of Friesland (the Netherlands) are discussed. Several languages play a role in the province’s everyday life: the dominant language Dutch, the regional minority language Frisian, migrant languages and school foreign languages, such as English. Despite this variety of languages, schooling is mainly in the national language, Dutch, and additional languages are offered separately. Research has shown, though, that to enhance learning, it is important to use pupils’ own multilingual repertoires (Cenoz & Gorter, 2011) and that successful language development is strongly influenced by attitudes and motivation (Lightbown & Spada, 1999). However, teachers do not always know how to deal with linguistic diversity and both teachers and pupils often hold negative attitudes towards regional minority and migrant languages.

These insights led to the Holi-Frysk project (a holistic approach towards Frisian and other languages in secondary language education) in which an intervention (consisting of multilingual classroom activities and projects) was developed to stimulate positive attitudes towards Frisian and multilingualism, and to provide teachers with knowledge and skills regarding multilingual didactics.

This presentation focusses on the initial language attitudes and skills of the project’s pupils (N=197), studied through an extensive questionnaire. Results show that while pupils are positive towards English and Dutch, their attitude towards Frisian, other regional varieties and migrant languages is much more negative. Pupils believe Frisian is not only less fun, but also less important. The presentation will discuss these attitudes and show how these are related to the pupils’ (language) backgrounds.

References
Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2011). Focus on Multilingualism: A Study of Trilingual Writing. The Modern Language Journal, 95(3), 356–369.
Lightbown, M. & Spada, N. (1999). How languages are learned. Revised edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Maja Melinc-Mlekuž, Federico Tenca-Montini.

Over the past thirty years, schools with Slovene as the language of instruction in Italy have seen an increase in the enrolment of children from non-Slovene, i.e., Italianspeaking families. The Slovene community in Italy has thus, on the one hand, witnessed an increase in the number of Slovene speakers and connoisseurs of the Slovene culture in Italy, along with fuller classes of Slovene-language schools, but on the other hand also faced certain didactic and methodological challenges on how to successfully include these children in the educational system so that they can progress through the programme and obtain the knowledge of Slovene on a level comparable to that of their classmates from Slovene-speaking families.

This case study of the L. Š. Primary School in Vermegliano/Romjan, where many pupils come from Italian-speaking families, sheds light on the historical and sociological context and motivations for enrolment in a Slovene-language school in Italy, the level of satisfaction with the educational programme, language proficiency of pupils from Italian-speaking families as compared to those from mixed or Slovenespeaking families, and the reactions of the broader community to the Slovenelanguage school. The study, which was based on cross-checking and comparing the results collected through a structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews with pupils’ parents and teachers, provides an important insight into the impact of minority education within a post-imperial area whose originally mixed population was Italianised after World War II. The results of the case study show that the enrolment of children in Slovene schools has encouraged families to become more actively engaged in the Slovene community network and to get to know the Slovene minority in general.

References
Bogatec, N. (ur.), 2020. Slovene: the Slovene language in education in Italy. Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning, Ljouwert/Leeuwarden.
Grgič, M., 2019. Slovenian in Italy: Questioning the Role of Rights, Opportunities, and Positive Attitudes in Boosting Communication Skills among Minority Language Speakers. European Journal of Minority Studies 12 (1/2), 126–139.
Vidau, Zaira, 2015. Intercultural relations between the Slovene national minority and the majority population in Italy after the independence of Slovenia. Research in social change. No. 7, iss. 3 (Sep. 2015), str. 283–317.

5.2.


4 sessions x 15'

Karolin Breda.

My doctoral project seeks to ethnographically investigate the identity practices of non-traditional speakers are new speakers of Basque (cf. Ortega et al. 2015), in order to provide new insights into the dynamics and characteristics of these speakers’ identity constructions in this specific minority language context. In this politically “imbalanced” linguistic context, languages are often imagined as coexisting side by side as if they were autonomous bounded systems (cf. Jaffe 2007). However, social reality tells a different story. The speakers at the heart of this study usually draw on a multiplicity of semiotic resources (first language(s), accents, dialectal and standard varieties, styles…) for meaning-making in social interaction. Thus, when doing ethnographic research in such settings, the question arises which languages the researcher is willing to learn, practice and use for research and which impact the use of different linguistic resources (available to the researcher) will have on the speakers she is working with?

Against this backdrop, this paper seeks to emphazise (a) the importance of „demystifying“ the aspect of learning and using languages in and for contemporary ethnographic research and of making it an integral part of the whole ethnographic process (Gibb, Tremlett & Iglesias 2020), and (b) the need of considering how the use (or non-use) of a particular or various linguistic resources might reflect or reproduce broader power relations and social inequalities. In order to expand on this view, I would like to draw on my own experiences as a learner of Basque, including feelings of anxiety, the shift from „expert“ to „novice“ stance in interview situations, comments about Euskera being a „particularly difficult“ language and the challenging question of using or avoiding Spanish – the dominant language which I speak fluently- during the ethnographic research process.

References
Gibb, R., Tremlett, A., & Danero Iglesias, J. (Eds.). (2020). Learning and Using Languages in Ethnographic Research. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Jaffe, A. (2007). Minority Language Movements. In M. Heller (Ed.), Bilingualism: a social approach (pp. 319–338). Palgrave Macmillan.
Ortega, A., Urla, J., Amorrortu, E., Goirigolzarri, J., & Uranga, B. (2015). Linguistic identity among new speakers of Basque, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2015(231), 85-105.

Sjoerd-Jeroen Moenandar and Joana Duarte.

Negative attitudes towards minority languages in multilingual educational settings can have far-reaching consequences for pupils’ academic achievement and well-being, yet they prevail in most education systems (Herzog-Punzenberger et al., 2017). The current study adds to the growing body of research on language attitudes in education by analysing the narrative negotiation (Korthals Altes, 2014) of such attitudes. It answers the research question: how do pre-service teachers frame their attitudes towards minority languages, implicitly or explicitly, as the outcome of certain experiences (motivations, actions, encounters, conflicts, consequences)?

22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with pre-service teachers from the Dutch province of Friesland, where schools with a trilingual curriculum (Frisian, Dutch and English) are challenged by the growing number of immigrant pupils (Duarte & Günther-van der Meij, 2018). Conceptualising language encounters as ‘border experiences’ (Meijers & Wardekker, 2003), the transcribed data was analysed using a method for mapping how narratives are used to ‘work through’ such ‘border experiences’ and to negotiate the rupture (Moenandar & Huisman, 2017) that language encounters may represent to the interviewee. Our analysis shows that in the narratives of pre-service teachers minority languages are cast as obstacles for academic achievement, thus reifying implicit language hierarchies. This study makes future research possible in which the regulating effects on actual learning environments of certain dominant narratives of multilingualism can be better understood.

References
Duarte. J., & Günther-van der Meij, M. (2018). A holistic model for multilingualism in education. E- JournALL, EuroAmerican Journal of Applied Linguistics and Languages,5(2), 24-43.
Herzog-Punzenberger, B., Le Pichon-Vorstman, E., & Siarova, H. (2017). Multilingual education in the light of diversity: Lessons learned. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Korthals Altes, E. (2014). Ethos And Narrative Interpretation: The Negotiation Of Values in Fiction, University of Nebraska Press: London and Lincoln.
Meijers, F., & Wardekker, W. (2003). Career learning in a changing world: the role of emotions. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 24(3), 149-167.
Moenandar, S.J. & Huisman, Q.T. (2017). Towards a Narrative Student Career Counselling. In Sjoerd-Jeroen Moenandar & Lynn Wood (eds.), Stories of Becoming: The Use of Storytelling in Education, Counselling and Research. Nijmegen: Campus Orleon, 127- 154.

Enara Eizagirre-Arandia and Edurne Urrestarazu-Garcia.

2000. urteaz geroztik atzerritik Hego Euskal Herriko udalerri euskaldunetara etorri diren pertsonen hizkuntza bizipenak ditu ardatz aurkeztea proposatzen den ikerketa kualitatibo honek, bereziki arnasguneetan zentratuta. 2019-2020 bitartean egin da landa lana Udalerri Euskaldunen Mankomunitateak abian jarritako Iñaki Arregi bekaren bidez. Zehazki, erdaldunak diren horiengan zentratu da ikerketa hau, eta denera 19 pertsona elkarrizketatu dira. Jatorrizko herrialdetik irten zirenetik gaur arte izan duten ibilbidearen jarraipena egin da, egungo bizilekuan dituzten harremanei eta hizkuntzei erreparatuz. Atzerritar erdaldunek udalerri euskaldunetan izandako bizipenetan zentratzean, hizkuntzaz hausnartzeko leku berri batean kokatu nahi izan da. Aurkezpen honetan jatorri anitzeko herritarrek euskarara izandako lehen hurbilpena azaltzea interesatzen zaigu eta, horrekin lotuta, gerora euskararekin izan duten harremanaren bilakaeran sakontzea.

Udalerri euskaldun batera etortzeak ez du esan nahi zuzenean euskararen berri izango dutenik, eta kasu batzuetan hala bada ere, ez dute guztiek hurbilpen berdina izango. Beraien ibilbideak aztertuta, antzekotasunak eta desberdintasunak nabaritzen dira euskararekiko gerturapenean. Hainbat faktoreren eraginez desberdina izan da harremana euskararekin, hala nola, sortu dituzten sareak, eskola garaian dauden seme-alabak, edota norberari sortutako kuriositatea. Edozein kasutan, euskarak hizkuntza moduan duen testuingururik aldekoena izanda ere, gaztelaniari lehentasuna ematen dieten arrakalak nabaritzen dituzte herri hauetako egunerokotasunean. Hala, euskara hizkuntza erabilgarria iruditzen zaie, baina ez dute beharrezkoa sentitzen. Interesgarria da ikustea zein irakurketa egiten duten munduko beste txokoetatik heltzen diren pertsonek herri hauen egoera soziolinguistikoari buruz, jakinda euskara gizarte bizitzako hizkuntza nagusia den testuinguruak direla.

Ainhoa Pardina-Arenaza and Ibon Manterola.

Lan honen helburua da Nafarroako eremu mistoan murgilketa ereduan euskaldundutako gazteen muda linguistikoak aztertzea. Zehazki, etxetik gaztelaniadunak izanik, euskara txikitatik D ereduan ikasitako 20 urte inguruko gazte hiztun berrien hizkuntza erabileren aldaketak eta haietan eragiten duten ideologiak izango ditugu hizpide.

Muda linguistikoak bizitzako une kritikoetan hiztunen hizkuntza errepertorioan eta erabileran gertatzen diren aldaketak dira eta haien analisiak aukera eman dezake aztertzeko hizkuntza erabileraren aldaketak nork egiten edo jasaten dituen, nola kudeatzen diren aldaketa horiek, non, noiz eta zergatik (Pujolar eta beste, 2017).

Ikerketako parte hartzaileak guztira hogeita hamasei gazte hiztun berri badira ere, sei gazteren laginetik ateratako datuak bakarrik erabiliko ditugu aurkezpen honetarako. Parte hartzaile guztiek betetako galdetegi soziolinguistikoaren arabera, sei gazte hauek dira, hain zuzen ere, euskararen erabilera sustatzeko eta indartzeko jarrera tinkoena erakutsi dutenak eta haietatik batzuk, unibertsitate ikasketak Arabako campusean egiten ari dira. Euskara gehiago erabiltzeko mudei lotutako ideologiak eta esperientziak aztertu ahal izateko, eztabaida talde batetik eta banakako elkarrizketetatik jasotako datuak erabiliko ditugu.

Analisien arabera, familiako eta D ereduko sozializazio euskaltzalea eragile garrantzitsua da gazteek euskaraz egiteko daukaten jarrera proaktiboa ulertzeko. Bestalde, Arabako campuseko zenbait testuinguru eta harreman sare euskararako muda egiteko lagungarri dira. Aldiz, gazteon jaioterriko harreman sareetan, muda oztopatzen dute kide batzuen euskara gaitasun mugatuak eta euskararen erabilera sustatzearekiko jarrera uzkurrak.

Aurkezpena ixteko, kontrastea egingo da Goirigolzarri eta bestek (2019) Bilboko unibertsitate testuinguruko gazteengan euskararako mudei lotuta identifikatutako esperientziekin.

Erreferentziak
Goirigolzarri eta beste, (2019). Activación lingüística de jóvenes neohablantes de euskera en la universidad. In F. Ramallo, E. Amorrortu & M. Puigdevall (Ed.), Neohablantes de lenguas minorizadas en el Estado español. Madrid: Iberoamericana / Vervuert. 23-46.
Pujolar, J.; González, I. eta Martínez, R. (2017). Gazte katalanen muda linguistikoak. BAT Soziolinguistika Aldizkaria,104, 51-70.

5.3.


4 sessions x 15'

Imanol Larrea-Mendizabal.

After Franco’s dictatorship there was a very intense activism for the revitalization of the Basque language during some decades. Anyhow, an especially important weakness was identified after some years of activism: the lack of sociolinguistic research that would set up the scientific foundations of such a complex process. That is why twenty years ago some university professors leaded the creation of a research centre along with the main social actors involved in the recuperation of the language. The organization was named Soziolinguistika Klusterra, after the philosophy of the creation of clusters that predominated in those years for the Basque industry. After more than fifteen years of activity, Soziolinguistika Klusterra is gradually achieving the confidence of the public institutions in charge of the language policy.

Many of the main social actors of the revitalization of the language are members nowadays of the organization and participate actively in the research projects. Therefore, the Cluster is placed in the intersection of several types of agents (public administration, academic institutions, social organizations and the economic agents) which represents a very interesting location in order to catalyse the language recuperation process.

Each year the staff carries out about twenty projects under the direction of university professors and with the collaboration of social agents and the public administration. Therefore, most of the projects are developed under the paradigm of action-research. Every year the results of applied research are published and spread in a number of ways such as the sociolinguistic research journal in Basque, the biweekly newsletter, seminars, and videos.

The aim of this paper is to share the experience of this atypical research centre with researchers of other minority languages.

Helga Kuipers-Zandberg and Ruth Kircher.

This study is the first contemporary investigation of the subjective compared to the objective ethnolinguistic vitality (EV) of West Frisian, a vulnerable minority language spoken in the Dutch province of Fryslân. A minority language’s EV plays a key role in its maintenance.

The objective EV of Frisian was established on the basis of policy documents and statistical data. To investigate the subjective EV, rich qualitative data were gathered by means of a questionnaire, which – due to low literacy rates – was administered to West Frisian speakers (N=15) in person. The open-ended items in the questionnaire targeted different aspects of the three main socio-structural factors that constitute the EV of a language: that is, status, demography, and institutional support (cf. the work of Howard Giles and colleagues). Content analysis was performed on the questionnaire data, using rounds of deductive and inductive coding and analysis.

The results suggest that West Frisian does have a certain amount of EV, which constitutes a good basis for language planning to ensure its continued maintenance. Moreover, the findings indicate that overall, the subjective EV tallies with the objective EV in terms of status, demography, and institutional support. However, two aspects raised concern among the participants. Firstly, as part of the status of West Frisian, there was concern about the language’s presence in the linguistic landscape (where subjective EV matched objective EV, but participants explicitly expressed the desire for a more persistent and pervasive presence of the language in public spaces). Secondly, as part of the institutional support for West Frisian, there was concern about the role of the language in the education system (where subjective EV did not match objective EV).

The paper discusses what implications the findings of this exploratory study – should they hold true – would have for language planning in the province of Fryslân.

Cynog Prys and Rhian Hodges.

The Welsh Government’s current Welsh Language Strategy (2017) aims to create a million Welsh Speakers by 2050. Education is the cornerstone of this strategy and is seen as a crucial language revitalisation tool in order to transmit the Welsh language to new speakers across Wales. However, this ambitious strategy clearly faces challenges, one of which is to ensure linguistic progression between educational sectors. One obstacle to students’ linguistic journey is a lack of Welsh-medium teaching resources. The aim of this paper is to discuss a series of Sociology resources that aim to increase the confidence of students and educators alike to learn and teach Sociology through the medium of Welsh. The series is called PAAC (Pecyn Adnoddau Amlgyfrwng Cymdeithaseg), a Multimedia Sociology Resources Pack funded by the Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol (a national Welsh-medium college). This is a series of interactive cartoon e-books and revision videos on key Sociological topics such as the family, research methods, introductory Sociology and social inequality, that are free to download from the Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol website. It is hoped that these innovative resources will fill the gaps within students’ linguistic school journey and encourage more students to study Sociology through the medium of Welsh or bilingually within higher education. However, creating new resources within a minoritized language context like Welsh is not without its challenges. This presentation will discuss some of the challenges and obstacles faced when developing new resources, including standardizing Welsh language terms for concepts usually discussed through the medium of English. It is hoped that this project will be a catalyst for further research and the resources needed to tackle the language planning challenge of linguistic progression within Wales and beyond.

5.4.


4 sessions x 15'

Igone Zabala, Izaskun Aldezabal and Maria Jesus Aranzabe.

Academic authorities in many non-English-speaking countries promote English for higher education. Strong English-language policies often adopted by academic authorities have aroused some scholar’s awareness of the risk that weakening the role of local languages for academic purposes might erode their functionality (Görland 2002; Laurén et al. 2002). A language will be capable to be used in a specialist field if it has at its disposal the necessary means of expression and is therefore of use within this domain. Consequently, when a language community fails to develop suitable means of communication, there is a risk for domain loss (Laurén et al. 2002). University students acquire academic registers necessary to become members of the specialist discourse community of a domain thanks to a wide range of tasks accomplished through language (Biber 2006). Thus, a certain presence in the curriculum is required for effective development of student’s proficiency in any language. The conquest of academic domains for Basque has resulted crucial for its revitalization. Nevertheless, academic registers are not thoroughly developed and stabilized, resulting in additional difficulties for the students to acquire academic writing skills. The use of Basque as instruction language and for academic works in the university is required in order to prevent domain loss, before specialized fields are fully cultivated. This paper describes the starting-points and goals of the HARTAvas project, devoted to design an academic writing assistance tool in Basque. This tool would help students developing their academic writing skills and, in the same time, would contribute to the cultivation of Basque in academic domains.

Key words: domain dinamics; domain loss; academic writing; domain cultivation.

References
Biber, D. (2006) University Language. A corpus based study of spoken and written registers. Benjamins.
Görlach,M. (2002). Still More Englishes. Benjamins.
Laurén, Ch., Myking, J., Picht, H. (2002). Language and domains: a proposal for a domain dynamics taxonomy. LSP & Professional Communication. Vol 2 (2).

Nora Aranberri and Uxoa Iñurrieta.

Machine translation has long been seen as a technology for major languages. However, efforts in recent years have resulted in good-quality systems for minority languages too (Etchegoyhen et al., 2018). This is the case of Basque, where recently neural systems of unprecedented quality have been made accessible to the general public (Batua, Itzuli and Itzultzailea, among others). Given the status of Basque as a minority language still in a normalization process, it is our aim to explore how this technology is used by people of different profiles and the implications it might bring.

As a first step in this direction, we designed a questionnaire to collect information about translation habits, machine translation usage and perceptions about the influence of MT on Basque. This allowed us to gather information about existing practices from both language experts and non-experts with varying levels of Basque competence.

The analysis of 1,110 responses showed that, in general, translation between the majority languages and Basque is very common practice for respondents of all profiles. Moreover, the use of MT systems which translate from or into Basque seems widespread despite the novelty of good-quality systems. Finally, we observe that, although most users find the results of these MT systems helpful for their translation needs, many, especially language experts, are concerned about the negative impact this technology could have on the development of Basque: firstly, because language quality could suffer if translated texts are made available without being revised, and, secondly, because users could tend to avoid writing directly in Basque and instead do so in the major languages and then translate the texts via MT.

Etchegoyhen, T., Garcia, E.M., Azpeitia, A., et al. (2018). Neural machine translation of Basque. In Proceedings of the 21st Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation, pp. 139–148.

Letizia Garcia Fernandez, Nekane Arratibel Insausti and Agurtzane Azpeitia Eizagirre.

Euskal Herriko testuinguru soziolinguistikoa gero eta anitzagoa da. Azken lau hamarkadetan, eskolari egotzi zaion arduragatik, euskararen ezagutzak aurrerapauso handiak eman ditu (1). Euskararen erabilerak, ordea, ez du igoera hain nabarmena izan, are gehiago, azken 10 urteotan jaitsiera apala izan du (2).

Mondragon Unibertsitateko Humanitate eta Hezkuntza Zientzien Fakultatea (HUHEZI) hezkuntza berrikuntzaren prozesu sakonean murgilduta dago. Marko horren baitan eta, besteak beste, euskararen erabileraren apaltzeak sortzen digun kezkatik abiatuta, Hizkuntza Tutoretza programa ezarri dugu lehen bi ikasturteetan. Programa honek hiru helburu ditu: 1) ikasle bakoitzaren eta taldearen hizkuntza gaitasuna, hizkuntza portaerak eta jarrerak bere baitan biltzen dituen diagnostikoa egitea; 2) gogoeta soziolinguistikoaren bidez euskararekiko kontzientzia piztea erabileran eragiteko; eta 3) ikasle profil ezberdinekin eta horietako bakoitzarekin erronka linguistikoak identifikatu eta horiek lantzeko espazioak eskaintzea

Ikerketa honek bi ikasturteetako ikasketa prozesua ebaluatzeko helburua du. Praktika eraginkorrak eta hobetzeko ildoak identifikatu nahi dira, Hizkuntza Tutoretza programaren eta hizkuntza tutoreen formakuntzan sakontzeko. Ikerketa longitudinal honetan 2019-2020 ikasturtean lehenengo mailan dauden ikasleek parte hartu dute, Aurkezpen honetan, 1. ikasturte bukaeran 12 ikaslerekin egindako elkarrizketetatik lortutako emaitzak aurkeztuko dira, programaren baliagarritasuna aztertzen eta hutsuneak zein hobetzeko ildoak identifikatzen lagunduko digutenak. Ikerketa honen lehen emaitzek agerian utzi dute Hizkuntza Tutoretza baliagarria dela ikasleentzat, nahiz eta oraingo diseinuak ez dituen ikasleen profil desberdinen beharrak modu berean erantzuten, neurri handi batean, euskara mailarekin zailtasunak dituzten ikasleengan arreta handiagoa jartzen duelako.

 

(1) 10/1982 Legea, azaroaren 24koa, Euskararen erabilera normalizatzeko oinarrizkoa geroztik: https://www.euskara.euskadi.eus/contenidos/informacion/argitalpenak/es_6092/adjuntos/Euskarar en_Legea_itzlpen_berria.pdf
(2) Soziolinguistika Klusterra (2017). Hizkuntzen erabileraren VII. Kale-Neurketa. Euskal Herria, 2016. Gipuzkoa: Andoain. http://www.soziolinguistika.eus/files/hekn2016-_eu_1.pdf

Daniel Pinto-Pajares.

This proposal for individual presentation is part of a research carried out in the Madrid municipality of Fuenlabrada between 2018 and 2019. Its results have provided two articles: (i) the first deals with linguistic ideologies regarding intradialectal variation in Spanish and it was published in 2019 in the Revista de Investigación Lingüística; and (ii) a second article, which is the one that interests us now, addresses linguistic ideologies regarding the minority languages of Spain (Galician, Basque and Catalan) and that will be published in 2021 in the Spanish Journal of Applied Linguistics.

In this presentation proposal, we investigate the ideology of linguistic Spanishism in a representative sample of students from the high school of Fuenlabrada. We collected anonymous questionnaires, and, using a quantitative technique, we extracted and analyzed the perceptions that the linguistic diversity of Spain suggests to this population group. Participants assigned extralinguistic properties to Galician, Basque and Catalan as if they were inherent characteristics of the languages.

Likewise, these languages were presented to evaluate them from a sociolinguistic perspective, in such a way that substantial differences were detected between languages in different social domains, such as education, the media or state institutions, as well as prejudices towards the speakers of each one of them. Under this evaluative burden, different premises of the ideology of Spanish linguistic nationalism are enclosed, which, through a supremacist discourse, places Spanish in a preferential position with respect to other languages of Spain and presents these as less suitable languages for communication and as obstacles to economic development.

Our objective in this communication will be to present a specific and statistically representative case of a population group that assesses Galician, Basque and Catalan in their linguistic and sociolinguistic domains and displays an ideology based on the supremacism of Spanish that certain pan-Hispanic institutions foster.

5.5.


4 sessions x 15'

Etienne Rougier.

Beginning in 2019 an ethnographic fieldwork in Auvergne (and peripheral regions of the Massif Central in Southern France), several current themes of Endangered Languages – theme increasingly central in contemporary studies of linguistic anthropology – will be raised here, and discussed (Meek 2012, Costa 2013, 2015, 2016, Milhé 2012). The Auvergnat is a North-Occitan dialect located in a marginal location of the Occitan cultural area, as well as the centralized French space, which makes it in many ways the “patois du patois”. It is classified by UNESCO among the most endangered languages in Europe. Basing my research work on the questions of linguistic uses, I discuss the registers, the representations and the socio-cultural formations made possible by an action at the same time political and poetical. The intellectuals and academicians of normativity (Bourdieu 1980, 1982), the “bobos” of the romanticism of the last speakers (Boillon 2007, Martel 1960) and the “grands absents du discours sur la langue”: the natural speakers (Milhé 2013); meet in these linguistic and cultural dynamics. This research enhance the approach of village festivals, Occitanist political and associative assemblies, and cafés in which language is spoken; all this to connote disruptive uses, to show the polynomial aspect of the language (Jaffe 2007) and to evoke these linguistic revitalization interests for the romantic and political potential of Auvergnat Occitan. If we focus our study on a panoccitanism represented by the performativity of militant and artistic linguistic uses, we would evoke in Occitanist language, these manifestations of creation and hybridization which form of a revitalized language, a new language (Romaine 2011), defying the strong French monolinguism. This study has also been supplemented by a comparative approach with the Occitan dialects of Piedmont (Italy), thus making it possible to highlight the influences of a linguistic policy on the use and representation of a language and a culture.

Josu Amezaga, Maddi Galdos.

Korrika is the largest social event in favor of Basque. It consists of a relay race that crosses the Basque Country every two years. At each kilometer, the baton is carried by a representative of the collaborating groups (civil society organizations, institutions, groups in defense of the language, companies, groups of friends, political and union organizations, etc.) and accompanied by dozens, hundreds or thousands of people of all ages who, with their effort to run a few hundred meters or tens of kilometers, show their support to the Basque language. In this way, the funding objective that motivated the first Korrika in 1980 is exceeded by that of social awareness.

The wide participation (hundreds of thousands of people in each edition), the continuity of movement (24 hours for 11 days), the ubiquity (more than 2,000 kilometers through all the regions of the Basque Country) and the festive character symbolize a symbiosis between society and minority language.

A first quantitative approach to the 2019 edition shows us the presence of almost 4,000 agents during its 2,213 kilometers. A deeper analysis will allow us to classify the participants based on their tipology (social, individual, institutional, economic, etc.) and the field in which they work (social movements, language, teaching, sport, market, etc.).

Secondly, we will proceed to select a sample for a qualitative analysis through in-depth interviews, in order to reconstruct the meaning that the participating agents make in their effort, physical and economic, in favor of the minority language.

From this double methodology we will draw conclusions about the role that non-hegemonic language can play as a central element in a process of intersectionality and the construction of collective identity.

This work is part of a broader investigation entitled “New Solidarities, Reciprocities and Alliances: the emergence of collaborative spaces for political participation and definition of citizenship “(ref. CSO2017-82903-R, 2018-2021). This project seeks to analyze the emergence, in the current context of change, of collaborative processes and spaces promoted by different agents. In these processes, alliances and intersections are taking place between different movements (feminist, anti-racist, environmentalist, multicultural, youth…), which generate solidarity and reciprocity, synergies and collaborative processes of participation, as well as a cross-cutting and relational approach to social conflicts and a recognition of the common.

Edorta Arana and Bea Narbaiza.

Gazteen kultur kontsumoa eta informazio eta komunikazio teknologien erabilera handia da, gizarteko beste adin-tartekoena baino handiagoa. Bereziki deigarria da noraino txertatu duten beraien egunerokoan ikus-entzunezko edukien kontsumoa izan denbora pasarako, informatzeko ala lagunekin komunikatzeko.

Modu berean, azpimarragarria da Euskal Herrian azken hamarkadetan euskararen sustapenean eginiko ibilbidea, eta bereziki hezkuntzaren bitartez lortu den hizkuntzaren ezagutza-maila.

Bi elementu hauen arteko erlazioa nola ematen den aztertu nahi izan dugu eta horri zuzendutako ikerketa dugu martxan UPV/EHUko ikasleak oinarri modura hartuta. Unibertsitateko ikasleek daukaten ikus-entzunezko kontsumoa eta euskararen ezagutza eta erabilera noraino dauden lotuta aztertu nahi izan dugu eta komunikazio honetan azalduko ditugu hainbat emaitza.

Ikerketa honetarako UPV/EHUko 700 ikasletik gora osatutako panelaren datuez baliatuko gara eta propio eginiko galdetegien emaitzak gurutzatuko ditugu euskararen ezagutza eta erabilerarekin.

13:30-14:30

Etena


14:30-15:30

Bideoposterrak


15:30-16:00

Etena


16:00-17:15

Zineforuma


Filma: "ANTI"
Hitzaldia: Josu Martinez

Martxoak 26 ostirala

9:00-10:30

Parallel session 6


6.1.


4 sessions x 15'

Mari-Mar Boillos, Eneko Zuloaga, Miren Ibarluzea, Nora Aranberri.

The Integrated Treatment of Languages (ITL) seeks to generate a consensus syllabus among teachers to create an educational context that favors the transfer of knowledge from one language to another. This integrated teaching also allows the development of the multilingual and multicultural competence of the students involved. Hence, it is helpful in educational contexts such as that of the Basque Autonomous Community in which Spanish, Basque – a minority language – and other languages such as English or French coexist. In this framework, the current research examines Primary Education and Secondary Education language teachers’ perceptions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the aforementioned approach: training, infrastructure, teacher role, etc. Among other objectives, we seek to know the perceived impact ITL can have on strengthening and protecting a minority language. To this end, we analyze the interventions of 62 teachers who participated in a deferred focus group during a training course in ITL and created a SWOT matrix to summarize their ideas about the ITL. From the analysis of their contributions and concerning the minority language, it is inferred preoccupation about the role given to Basque and it is considered that this language, compared to Spanish or English, can be seen to be in a position of inferiority. It is also noted that some teachers appear to question the benefits of applying the ITL in environments where students do not master the minority language. We will reflect on the attitudinal and didactic implications of this bias in the framework of linguistic normalization and continuous teacher training.

Uxue Diez-Guiral, Jasone Cenoz, Jon Altuna.

Language anxiety (LA) is a common emotion inside the language classroom (Daubney, Dewaele and Gkonou, 2019) and, as such, this affective variable has been widely researched for the past 40 years. However, it was not until relatively recently that the field of LA has adopted a new direction towards the acceptance of its complexity and dynamism. In this context, major researchers such as Horwitz (2010) highlight the urgency of studying how learner identity affects and, in the same way, is affected by LA.

Gender is claimed to be one of the aspects that more profoundly shapes and impacts classroom interaction and language learning (Baxter, 2011). Nevertheless, the extent to which gender roles and broader societal structures affect language learners is yet to be ascertained. In this sense, it has been argued that LA is intimately linked to gender and its formation (Dewaele, 2008).

The present study aims at exploring the impact of gender in the arousal of anxiety inside the language classroom. Our main goal is to offer a perspective that leads to a more positive language learning experience that helps increase enjoyability and motivation to learn languages. The study is set in the Basque Autonomous Community, hence, language anxiety in Spanish, English and Basque will be measured and compared. LA in the minority language (Basque) classroom will be of special relevance. Drawing from collected data, the study tries to explain linguistic and gender power relations inside the language classroom; additionally, it offers innovative perspectives upon which new classroom policies can be based.

References
Baxter, J. (2011). Gender. In J. Simpson (Ed.), Routledge handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 331–344). Oxford: Routledge.
Daubney, M., Dewaele, J.M., & Gknou, C. (2019). Introduction. In C. Gkonou, M. Daubney and J.M. Dewaele (Ed.), New Insights into Language Anxiety: Theory, research and educational implications (pp. 1–30). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Horwitz, E. K. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching, 43(2), 154–167. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480999036X

Eneko Zuloaga.

La revitalización del euskera se ha sustentado sobre dos ejes: el desarrollo de una variedad estándar y la implantación del euskera como lengua vehicular en los sistemas educativos de los territorios vascohablantes. El proceso de enseñanza y revitalización lingüística ha superado numerosos escollos y ha alcanzado algunos hitos impensables hace medio siglo; no obstante, algunos aspectos relevantes no han sido tratados o consensuados ni por la administración responsable, ni por la comunidad educativa.

El presente trabajo presenta el análisis de las principales propuestas realizadas acerca de cómo debe entenderse y enseñarse el euskera unificado y qué lugar que debería darse a los dialectos vascos en la enseñanza. El trabajo de la competencia sociolingüística en el aula y la necesidad de basarse en modelos discursivos reales ha sido reivindicado profusamente por educadores e investigadores; sin embargo, en el ámbito educativo vasco no se ha llegado a consensuar el tratamiento de la diversidad dialectal del euskera. Se presenta aquí una perspectiva general sobre las declaraciones institucionales (Gobierno Vasco, Euskaltzaindia) y sobre las aportaciones que diversos profesores-investigadores (Zuazo, 2003, 2005; Goikoetxea, 2003; Maia, 2000; Maia & Larrea, 2008) han realizado sobre el tema. En concreto, se analizan puntos en común, oportunidades, puntos fuertes y posibles limitaciones y problemas de las propuestas.

Referencias
Goikoetxea, J. L. (2003). Euskalkia hezkuntzan. Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.
Maia, J. (2000). Eskolako hizkera ereduaz, euskara batuaren eta euskalkiaren arteko harremanen testuinguruan (tesis doctoral). UPV/EHU, Bilbao.
Maia, J. & Larrea, K. (2008). Euskara batua eta euskalkiak HHn eta LHn. Leioa: UPV/EHU.
Zuazo, K. (2003). Euskararen sendabelarrak. Irun: Alberdania.
Zuazo, K. (2005). Euskara batua. Donostia: Elkar.

Gemma Repiso-Puigdelliura, Anna Tudela Isanta, Ruben Manuel-Oronich. 

Despite the vast research on motivation to learn a second language, less attention has been paid to minority language learners. The focus on English has resulted in a decrease in the interest to address concepts that are less relevant for majority languages, such as the speakers’ community (Al-Hoori, 2017). Studies on L2 Catalan motivation have mainly dealt with recent or long term immigrants (Bernardó et al., 2008; Hamilton & Serrano, 2015) and although the number of students currently enrolled in Catalan language and culture courses in universities outside Catalan speaking regions has reached 6.690, the motivations of learners that have a lesser contact with the Catalan community are still understudied. This project aims to identify the main factors accounting for L2 Catalan students’ motivation, and to observe how these factors are affected by demographic, academic, linguistic and contextual variables. University students (N=194) from four universities in different countries (China, United States, United Kingdom, France) completed a questionnaire containing 49 motivational items and 12 questions about their profile information. A principal axis factor analysis showed four factors explaining 56.8% of variance that account for the L2 Catalan students’ motivation: L2 Learning Experience, Emigration Plans in a Catalan-speaking region and Language Awareness, Contextual motivation, and Work. Post-hoc ANOVAs and t-tests showed that while factor 1 is only affected by gender, the other factors are significantly dependent on the university of study and contact with the L2 community, among other variables.

References
Al-Hoorie (2017). Sixty Years of Language Motivation Research: Looking Back and Looking Forward. SAGE Open.
Bernardó; Comajoan; Bastons (2008). “Anàlisi factorial dels motius d’aprenentatge del català com a llengua segona i relació amb el nivell, el temps d’estada, l’edat i el centre d’estudi dels alumnes”. Catalan Review, Vol. XXII, p. 71-94.
Hamilton; Serrano (2015). “Contact, attitude and motivation in the learning of Catalan at advanced levels”. International Journal of Multilingualism, 12:3, 241-258.

6.2.


4 sessions x 15'

Idurre Eskisabel-Larrañaga and Lorea Agirre-Dorronsoro.

Euskaraldia (2018/11/23-2018/12/03) hizkuntz ohituren aldaketan ardaztutako euskararen aldeko mobilizazio sozial handiak beste batzuen artean honako datu hau utzi zuen: parte hartu zuren 196.000 herritarretatik ia bi heren emakumezkoak ziren; zehazki, %63,1. Alegia, genero arrakala argi bat bistaratu zuen hizkuntz hautu, atxikimendu eta praktikei dagokienean. Edo beste era batera esanda, berriro frogatu zuen hizkuntza praktikak eta sexu-genero sistema etengabe gurutzatzen direla, eta gurutzatu ez ezik, generoa hizkuntza praktiken baldintzagarri dela (Del Valle, Teresa, 1985) (Eckert, P; McConnell-Ginet, S, 2003) (Bulchotz, Mary, 2003) (Cameron, Deborah, 2003) (Baker, Paul, 2008).

Gurutzaketa horrek ezaugarri bereziak hartzen ditu hizkuntza minorizatuen kasuan, gutxiagotasunak gehitzen diren heinean. Halaber, hizkuntza praktiketan sexu-genero sistemak eragiten duena ulertzea ezinbestekoa da biziberritze prozesuetan artez eragiteko. Teoria feminista ekarritako ikuspegi intersekzionalera lotzen gara horrenbestez (Davis, Angela, 1981) (bell hooks, 1990) (Reimóndez, 2014).

Mataza hori teoria feministaren argitan aztertzea da proposamen honen funtsa, be geruzatan:

  1. Praktikak ulertzeko zume teoriko eta metodologiko gisa. Esaterako, euskararen kasuan frogatzeko hizkuntz atxikimendu eta praktiken feminizazioan nola eragiten duten feminitateari atxikitako obedientzia edota etxekotasun arau/ezaugarriek. Edota, ifrentzuan, euskararen praktika mota bat nola den maskulinitate hegemoniko eredu bat eraikitzeko ezinbesteko osagai.
  2. Praktika eraldatzaile eta biziberritzaileak bultzatzeko zume teoriko zein diskurtsibo gisa. Menperakuntza eta gutxiagotze mekanismoen disekziorako lanabes bikainak landu ditu teoria feministak, adibidez, naturalizazioaren kontzeptua. Baina baita ere emantzipaziorakoak, hala nola, ahalduntzea, edota adiera kolektibora eramanda, boteretzea. Hizkuntza minorizatuen biziberritze prozesuetarako lanabes egokiak, teorikoki zein diskurtsiboki (diskurtsoa praktikaren parte ulertuta) azkenaldiko hainbat ekintza, gertakari eta ekimen frogatzen ari diren bezala.

Jaime Altuna.

Genero ikerketek eta hizkuntza ikerketek hainbat oinarri metodologiko eta teorikoak partekatzeaz gain, modu anitz eta produktiboen bidez elkar aberasten dute (Kramer, 2016). Ikasketa feministek eta generokoek agerian utzi dute jendarte desberdinkeriak hainbat kategorizazio-forma konbinatzen diren prozesu konplexuen ondorio direla, eta 1970 hamarkadatik hizkuntza eta generoa jorratu duen ikerketa esparru zabalak lagundu du faktore anitzen konbinazioaren bidez sortzen den desberdinkeri soziala analizatzen.

Hizkuntza gutxiagotuen ikerketek ere beharrezkoa dute generoa kontuan hartzea, hala egin ezean, aurkikuntzak eta emaitzak azalekoagoak izan daitezkelako, eta generoari erreparatu gabe aztertutako auziak ez direlako guztiz modu egokian jorratzen, jendartearen desberdintasun eta kategorizazio gertaera oinarrizkoenetako bat alde batera uzten baita (Pujolar, 2007). Testuinguru elebidun eta eleanitzetan genero eta hizkuntza gurutzatuz egin diren ikerketek emaitza anitzak eman dituzte, baina argi utzi dute une eta gune soziokultural bakoitzean dauden genero eta hizkuntza ideologiek bideratzen dituztela hizkuntza praktikak (Pavlenko, 2001).

Hori dela eta, komunikazio honetan egungo testuinguru globalizatu eta dinamikoan hizkuntza gutxiagotuen ikerketa eremua ikasketa feminista eta generokoekin harremanetan jartzeko garrantziaz hausnartu nahi dut. Belaunaldiz belaunaldi hizkuntza praktika zehatzei lotutako esanahiak aldatzen direnez gogoeta kokatua egingo dut. Euskal Herriko hainbat haur, nerabe eta gazteekin azken bost urteetan garatzen ari naizen ikerketa etnografikoetan jasotako emaitzetan oinarrituko naiz, haien bizipenetan hizkuntza eta genero kategoriei lotutako esanahiei erreparatuz.

Erreferentziak
Kramer, Elise (2016). “Feminist linguistics and linguistic feminisms” Bolles, A. Lynn, et al. Mapping feminist anthropology in the twenty-first century : 65-83. Rutgers University Press.
Pavlenko, Aneta (2001). “Bilingualism, gender, and ideology.” International Journal of Bilingualism 5.2: 117-151.
Pujolar, Joan (2007). “Gènere i bilingüisme: connectant experiències i teories”. Introductory paper in J.Santaemilia, P. Bou, S. Maruenda eta G. Zaragoza International Perspectives on Gender and Language: 3-30. Valencia: Universidad de Valencia.

Maria Mazzoli.

Linguistic fieldwork and research design on minority and endangered languages have been shown to be intrinsically problematic because they often do not include the perspectives of the community members on the research goals and methodology, they may perpetrate unbalanced power relations between the researchers and the researched individuals, and they seldom focus on the promotion of scientific literacy among the individuals who produce the scientific data.

ce the scientific data. Ethically informed and collaborative ways of doing linguistic research on endangered and minority languages have been developed and applied to multiple cases around the world. One of these approaches is community-based language research (CBLR), defined as “collaborative” because it aims to produce knowledge on a language that is constructed for, with, and by community members. The CBLR approach is mostly geographically confined to North America and Australia and into the field of language documentation. In some academic contexts, it is delegitimized as social work.

Another approach is Citizen Sociolinguistics (within Citizen Science), which aims at collecting reliable linguistic data in local communities, conducting research adhering to high scientific standards that at the same time involves the individuals not as objects of study but as active subjects in the research (from design to implementation). This tackles the methodological challenges posed by linguist-led fieldwork on minority and endangered languages.

In this paper, I review research projects on minority languages where Citizen Sociolinguistics has informed the research design in different ways and I compare those to different projects inspired by CBLR and other participatory methods.

References
Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa. 2009. Research models, community engagement, and linguistic fieldwork: Reflections on working within Canadian Indigenous communities. Language Documentation and Conservation 3(1): 15-50.
Svendsen, Bente Ailin. 2018. The dynamics of citizen sociolinguistics. Journal of Sociolinguistics 22(2): 137–16.

Jon Mentxakatorre Odriozola.

Euskal Herrian barrena, gaztelerak eta frantsesak lege, administrazio eta hezkuntzan daukaten babes eta estatusaren ondorioz, euskara ez da, zenbait eremutan, hizkuntza funtzio oro betetzera heltzen. Eta, koofizialtasuna edo erabilera eskubidea bermatuta daukanean, hizkuntza hegemonikoen aukera beti dauka ondoan. Baina, horren aurrean, normalizazioaren ikerketa, plangintza eta ekimenerako erakunde publiko zein pribatutako hainbat soziolinguista, teknikari eta aholkulariren jarduna dago, hizkuntzalaritza, kudeaketa eta berrikuntzan diharduten beste askorekin batera. Aditu horiek, euskaraz eta euskararen alde lan egiten dute administrazio, enpresa, erakunde eta gizarte zabalean eragiteko asmoz. Hizkuntza langai eta helburu daukate. Komunikazio honen helburua profesional horien hizkuntzaren gaineko usteak azaltzea da.

Hizkuntza komunikazio tresna soil eta identitatea eratzeko elementu sinpletzat daukaten polo bien artetik abiatuta, 2019ko otsaila-maiatza bitartean galdetegi bidez euskara ogibide eta helburu dutenen 143 adituren erantzunak jaso ziren, hizkuntzaren helburua, erabilera, jatorria eta balio kognitibo-filosofikoari buruz. Ikuspegi soziolinguistiko eta etnografikoko emaitzek erakusten dute hizkuntzaren estetika, sorrera, balio sakon eta ezagutzaz galdetzean iritziak asko aldatzen direla, eta batasun handia dagoela komunikazio erreminta edo identitate ikur iriztean.

Komunikazioaren helburua da euskaraz eta euskararentzat diharduten 92 soziolinguista eta hizkuntzalari (73 hizkuntza aholkulari), eta 51 unibertsitate irakasle/ikerlari, kazetari eta itzultzaileren erantzunak azaltzea eta hizkuntza homogeneizazioa eta aniztasunaren eremuan testuinguratzea, eta gogoeta arlo berrietarako bidea zabaltzea. Komunikazioaren ondorioa izango da, beraz, hizkuntzaren izaera sozio-komunikatibotik haratago, iritzia baino sendoagoa izan behar den jarrera eta adierazpena ezagutu behar direla hizkuntzaren izaera eta balioaz; are gehiago hizkuntza gutxituak berrindartzeko ingurune eleanitzetan lanetan ari direnen artean.

Throughout the Basque Country, due to the protection and status of Spanish and French in law, administration and education, Basque is not, in some areas, able to fulfill all its linguistic functions. And, when co-officiality or the right to use is guaranteed, the choice of hegemonic languages is always at hand. But in the face of this, there is the work of various sociolinguists, professionals and consultants from public and private organizations for the research, planning and initiative of revitalization, along with many others involved in linguistics, management and innovation. These experts work in and for the Basque language with the aim of influencing the government, business, institutions and society at large. They have language as a tool and as an objective. The aim of this communication is to explain the beliefs about the language of these professionals.

Between the points of language as a mere communication tool and a mere element to form an identity, 143 experts answered to a questionnaire in February-May 2019 on the purpose, use, origin and cognitive-philosophical value of language. The results from a sociolinguistic and ethnographic point of view show that when asking about the aesthetics, origin, deep value and knowledge of language, opinions change a lot, and that there is a great unity in the opinion of language as a communication tool or symbol of identity.

The aim of this communication is to explain and to contextualize the responses of 92 sociolinguists and linguists (73 language consultants), and 51 university lecturers/researchers, journalists and translators working in and for Basque in the realm of language homogenization and diversity, as well as to pave the way for new areas of reflection. The conclusion of the communication will be, therefore, that beyond the sociocommunicative nature of language, one must know the attitude and explanation that must be stronger than opinion about the nature and value of language; even more so among those working in multilingual environments to revitalize minority languages.

6.3.


4 sessions x 15'

Craig Willis and Romain Herault.

The Celtic languages of Breton, Cornish, Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh and the traditional areas in which they have been widely spoken, all lie in peripheral locations in comparison to the economic centre of the respective European Union (EU) Member State they find themselves in. As such, the EU’s primary set of tools for reducing regional socio-economic disparity, the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF), have been the main financial mechanisms affecting the development of these areas. This presentation provides an overview of the Celtic language and culture development and evaluates the effects of the ESIF on this evolution since 2000. For this, we apply the assessment criteria of ‘creation of local sustainable jobs’, ‘development of infrastructure’, ‘number of cultural projects’, ‘estimated impact on language development’ and ‘the future impact of the ESIF on Celtic languages’, in order to dissect the various ESIF cyclical reports and speculate on its future impact.

The ESIF have made a significant impact economically on the traditional Celtic areas, albeit to varying degrees. Whilst the impact on language is mostly indirect, broader cultural impacts can be observed in the types of projects funded and jobs created. Moreover, the funding has provided economic opportunity at a time when regional initiatives and/or legislation aimed at improving minority language use have been increasing in all of these Celtic nations. This research therefore provides an insightful comparative assessment across regions which share similar patterns of historic marginalisation of a linguistic and cultural but also socio-economic nature. In the current context of the United Kingdom’s exit from the EU, it is a timely point to examine the regions which will no longer benefit from EU funds, alongside the areas in France and Ireland which will continue to do so.

Michele Gazzola.

The Autonomous Province of Trento (Northern Italy) promotes and protects three minority languages on its territory, that is, Ladin, Cimbrian and Mocheno. Cimbrian and Mocheno have a very small population base (about 1,100 and 1,700 people respectively) and are in decline, while Ladins are more numerous (almost 19,000 people) and live a better situation. The minorities are territorially concentrated, the Cimbrians and Mòcheni live in some mountain municipalities at risk of depopulation. There is a provincial law protecting these minorities, but at the same time there is also a lack of multiannual programming and operational implementation plans based on clear objectives. The initiatives taken so far are promising, but often unrelated to each other. The effect of current language planning measures on linguistic vitality is not clear. One of the reasons that explain this situation is the absence of a suitable information system. At the heart of this system are the language policy indicators and procedure to collect relevant data. Without a clear information system it is difficult to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of the language policy of the Province. The aim of this paper is to present a system of indicators useful for the planning, monitoring and periodic evaluation of language policy aimed at supporting the three minority languages in the Province. Language policy is viewed here as a public policy through which human, organisational and material resources (input) generate administrative services and direct products (outputs) which in turn result in (or should result in) greater use of the minority language in the community (results or outcome). In line with the literature in public policy, therefore, this presentation defines a set of input, output and result indicators that are consistent with the law for the protection of minorities in the Province.

Eli Bjørhusdal.

The case of this study is the administration of the written standards of Norwegian: Bokmål, the majority language, and Nynorsk, the lesser used. The two languages were officially equalized in 1885. By analysing a selection of government documents from 1885 to 2020, focusing on political practices and their justifications, my aim is to examine Norway’s language regime in past and present by asking: To what extent was and is the Norwegian language regime connected to a broader state tradition? How can the new Language Act of Norway (2020) be understood in light of the state’s language regime?

Drawing on (among others) Sonntag & Cardinal (2015), Patten & Kymlicka (2003), and Bjørhusdal (2016), I will argue that the Norwegian language regime has been universalist from 1885 and throughout the 20th century. The task of public bodies and central government has been to ensure that the languages are treated (formally) equally – it has not been to intervene in or guide people’s language choices. I will assess whether the Norwegian universalist language regime thus resists differentiated measures for the users of the minority language by examining how the new Language Act of Norway, adopted in 2020, deals with and discusses targeted policies and differentiated rights for the Nynorsk users.

6.4.


4 sessions x 15'

Ruth Videsott.

This paper aims to investigate the use of Dolomitic Ladin in online settings, with a special focus on its impact on language identity and language awareness. Several studies have taken into account the digital use of different regional and minority languages spoken in Italy (cf. Fiorentino 2006; Miola 2013, Gheno 2015), underlying the growing tendency towards multilingualism. Especially for minority languages in a traditionally multilingual context, it is interesting to observe how the use of the minority language itself in social networks and in internet in general, has an important identity construction function (Fiorentino 2006). This is for example the case of Dolomitic Ladin, a minority language spoken by ca. 34.000 people in Badia, Gardena, Fassa, Fodom and Ampezzo valleys. From an administrative and sociolinguistic point of view the five valleys display some differences: Fassa, Badia and Gardena belong to the officially trilingual (Italian, German, and Ladin) region of Trentino-South Tyrol (Italy); Fodom and Ampezzo are situated in the region of Veneto. The analysis is based on a corpus of WhatsApp and Facebook conversations of bi- and trilingual Ladin speakers (15-25 years old) of Badia, Gardena and Fassa and on interviews with 15 of these speakers. The analysis of their repertoire and language use as well as the interviews will show how the implementation of Ladin in an online context reinforces cultural identity and increases metalinguistic awareness at the same time.

Daniel Cunliffe and Lysbeth Jongbloed-Faber.

The use of a minority language in information and communications technology is often seen as an important indicator of vitality. Many minority languages are used on social media platforms on a daily basis and a number of studies are reported in the literature. However, social media are dynamic, with new platforms appearing and old platforms disappearing. In many contexts, different generations of speakers will have stronger affiliations to different social media platforms.

Young people across a number of different contexts are increasingly using newer platforms such as WhatsApp, Instagram, Snapchat, and TikTok. However, the use of minority languages on these platforms is relatively unstudied, and the methods and opportunities unexplored. This paper reports on an initial study of TikTok use among two minority language communities, Frisian/Frysk and Welsh/Cymraeg.

The paper uses selected examples from both language communities on TikTok to characterise the ways in which TikTok is currently being used. This includes an examination of personal and organisational accounts and the topics on which they focus. It describes the different types of post, comments generated in response to posts and the use of hashtags. This provides an initial point of reference for both languages and supports comparison with other language communities.

The paper also considers some of the particular methodological challenges and opportunities offered by TikTok. This provides an initial insight into the aspects of these communities that could be studied, looking at the different forms of data that are available, the different relationships that can be observed and ways in which minority language content can be discovered. The aim is to share insights that will be useful in future studies of minority language communities on TikTok.

Ainara Miguel, Irene Garcia, Irati Agirreazkuenaga, Angeriñe Elorriaga, Sergio Monge, Patxi Azpillaga, Koldo Atxaga eta Naroa Jauregizuria (Nik Ikerketa taldea).

Komunikazio honek abian den ikerketa proiektu bat azaltzen du, hizkuntza markagintza izena daraman eta euskara marka aztertzen duen egitasmoa. Proiektu berritzailea da, lehen aldiz, hizkuntza bati, euskarari kasu honetan, markaren kontzeptua aplikatzen baitzaio. Hala, azterlanak marketinaren estrategiak eta publizitate-teknikak erabili ditu, lehenik eta behin, hizkuntzaren marka-irudia ikertzeko eta marka hori hobetzen saiatzeko eta, ondorioz, hizkuntzaren erabilera sustatzeko.

Marka, izena gehi izen horrek esan nahi duenaren pertzepzioa da. Markak dimentsioak gehitzen dizkio edozein entitateari. Metaforikoki, “jantzi” egiten duela esan dezakegu eta, horrela, funtzio bera betetzen duten beste aukera batzuetatik bereizteko aukera ematen du. Horren ondorioz, eta markaren balioa positiboa edo negatiboa den kontuan hartuta, markak aukeraketa eragin edo desanimatuko du, dela produktu bat erostea, dela turismo-helmuga batera joatea, alderdi edo hautagai bati botoa ematea, ideia bat onartzea, gizarte-mugimendu batean sartzea edo hizkuntza bat ikastea eta erabiltzea.

Hizkuntza markagintzari dagokion eremu kontzeptuala eta azterketa-metodologia garatu dira, lehenengo eta behin, euskarak egungo euskal gizartean duen irudia aztertu, ebaluatu eta euskararentzako rebranding proposamen bat egiteko, beste edozein hizkuntza gutxitutan ere aplika daitekeena.

Helburu horiek lortzeko, markagintza komertzialean baliatzen diren teoria eta metodologiak egokitu dira eta azterketarako eredu bat proposatu da. Eredu horren gainbegiratu azkarra aurkezte aldera, Kellerren eredua aplikatuz (1993), esan dezakegu hizkuntza batek marka-balio positiboa duela bere interes-taldeak osatzen dituztenek hizkuntza hori aintzat hartzen dutenean eta ezaugarri positiboak eta bereziak esleitzen dizkiotenean. “Bost A” deritzon ereduak hizkuntza baten marka balioaren dimentsioak zehazten ditu: antzematea (awareness), asoziazioak (associations), aktitudeak (acttitudes), atxikimendua (attachment) eta aktibitatea (activity).

Emaitza gisa euskara markaren azterketa aurkeztuko da. Horretarako, metodo kualitatiboak eta kuantitatiboak baliatu dira, zehazki, focus taldeak eta 1.200 laguni egindako makroinkesta.

6.5.


4 sessions x 15'

Beatriz Zabalondo and Asier Basurto Arruti.

Some major changes have occurred globally in the field of communication in recent years (Orihuela 20151 ). Digitalisation has become more prevalent, technology has developed, and the Internet has spread worldwide and is available to almost all publics, so the management of communication is tied to new requirements and patterns. Along with the relatively advance in the number of new Basque speakers, there are some evidences showing that bilingual media attitudes towards the Basque language have changed.

Companies and any kind of organizations that operate in public communication have also transformed their activities and behaviour. Adaptations have been made in their internal management, in the resources and in the integration of communication issues in their institutional life (Aced 20132 ). Some traditional media that often act as intermediaries between these organizations and their publics also seems to start arranging their news(rooms) in order to connect with the readers/consumers. In this paper we will discuss how all this has affected the linguistic practices of both, organizations and media. And we will describe how in the Basque Country, the linguistic practices of organizations and media are conditioned by each other’s culture and behavior.

Qualitative techniques (focus groups and in-depth interviews) have been used to find out the experiences and discourses raising in this ecosystem. On the one hand, communication directors (DirCom) and public relations from organizations of all kinds (companies, sports clubs, banks, public entities, associations…) referential in the Basque territory have participated in the research. And on the other hand, journalists, editors-in-chief and directors of media (television, newspapers, radio …).

  1. ORIHUELA, José Luis (2015). Los medios después de Internet. Barcelona: UOC.
  2. ACED, Cristina (2013). Relaciones públicas 2.0. Cómo gestionar la comunicación corporativa en el entorno digital. Barcelona: UOC.

Sanita Lazdina and Heiko Marten.

After 3 decades of activism in post-independent Latvia, the regional language of Latgalian is still confronted by many of the problems that have shaped its functions and societal status for most of its history: on the macro level, it continues to be characterized by a marginalization in official domains, large-scale diglossia with standard Latvian, a lack of educational opportunities, societal discourses which discourage its use, and fragile patterns of intergenerational transmission.

On the micro-level, however, some encouraging developments could be observed in recent years: a higher prestige of Latgalian in parts of the population, a more multilingual approach in the new Latvian school curricula, more use of Latgalian in the Linguistic Landscape and in the media, or the introduction of “local studies” including Latgalian at primary schools in the region of Latgale. In spite of being rather weak measures in international standards, however, these improvements usually needed major discussions which frequently created uproar in parts of society. In this light, every small step in favour of Latgalian has been perceived as a major achievement by activists and speakers.

Based on the analysis of educational documents, media debates and more general societal discourses on Latgalian, our paper discusses some of these recent developments, not least in the light of the fact that a dedicated Latgalian activist has been Latvian minister of education since 2019. In this sense, our paper draws on more than a decade of observing political and societal debates on languages in Latvia and compares recent developments to findings on Latgalian discussed in previous papers which were, not least, presented at ICML in 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2013. The achievements of this small-step realpolitik ultimately raise the question: is the Latgalian glass “half-full” – or is it still “half-empty”?

Guillem Belmar.

El sardo es la lengua minoritaria más hablada entre las minorías lingüísticas reconocidas por el gobierno italiano (Governo della Reppublica Italiana, 1999). El dominio lingüístico sardo, de hecho, está formado por variedades bastante distintas entre sí, lo cual ha dificultado tradicionalmente la estandarización de la lengua, así como la defensa de su uso en las esferas públicas. Asimismo, a parte del sardo, también se hablan el galurés (clasificado como una variedad corsa), el alguerés (una variedad del catalán), el sasarés (clasificado por algunos como dialecto del sardo, mientras otros lo consideran una lengua de transición entre el corso y el sardo) y el tabarquino (una variedad del ligur). Todas estas variedades gozan de cierto reconocimiento y protección por parte del gobierno autónomo de Cerdeña. El sardo y el catalán (alguerés), además, se enseñan en algunas escuelas como asignatura opcional, pero el italiano es la lengua dominante en la isla y las actitudes hacia las minorías lingüísticas son marcadamente negativas.

En 2018 el gobierno regional aprobó las Normas para la protección, oficialización y promoción de la lengua sarda y de las otras variedades lingüísticas de Cerdeña. Esta ley reconoce al sardo, al catalán, al galurés, al sasarés y al tabarquino como patrimonio inmaterial de la región que debe ser protegido, valorizado y promovido (Consiglio Regionale della Sardegna, 2018). En esta presentación reflexionaremos sobre las implicaciones de esta nueva ley para la preservación de las lenguas minorizadas de Cerdeña. Para ello usaremos el concepto de plurilingüismo en microterritorios (Jiménez-Salcedo, Hélot, & Camilleri-Grima, 2020) y nos basaremos en los datos de encuestas sociolingüísticas de 2007 (Lupinu et al., 2007) y 2017 (EULAL, 2017). Asimismo, a partir de comparaciones con otros casos similares analizaremos cómo el uso de estrategias de translenguaje, multilingüismo receptivo y asertividad lingüística podría incentivar el multilingüismo en esta isla.

References
EULAL. 2017. Els usos lingüística a l’Alguer – Sos usos linguìsticos in S’Alighera – Gli usi linguistici ad Alghero. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya, Departament de Cultura, Direcció General de Política Lingüística.
Consiglio Regionale della Sardegna (2018). Norme per la tutela, ufficializzazione e promozione della lingua sarda e delle varietà linguistiche della Sardegna. Retrieved July 20, 2018, from http://www.consregsardegna.it/XVLegislatura/Testi%20Unificati/TU36-167- 228-A.pdf
Governo della Repubblica Italiana (1999). Legge 15 dicembre 1999, n. 482. Norme in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche. Retrieved November 6, 2017, from http://www.normattiva.it/urires/N2Ls?urn:nir:stato:legge:1999-12-15;482!vig
Jiménez-Salcedo, J.; Hélot, C.; & Camilleri-Grima, A. (Eds.). 2020. Small is Plurilingual: Languages and Identities in Microterritories. Berlin: P.I.E – Peter Lang.
Lupino, G.; Mongili, A.; Oppo, A.; Spiga, R.; Perra, S.; & Valdes, M.. 2007. Le lingue dei sardi: una ricerca sociolinguistica. Cagliari: Università degli Studi di Cagliari.

Astrid Adler and Albrecht Plewnia.

One of the languages in Germany that are protected by the European Charta for Regional or Minority Languages is Low German (cf. Goltz/Kleene 2020). But is it really a language? Actually, a majority of people in Northern Germany (i.e. the region where Low German is native to) assume that Low German is a dialect (59.2%); only 39.0% consider Low German to be a language (cf. Adler et al. 2018:28ff.). Thus, in the public perception its status is rather contested. Therefore, we will closely examine data from two representative datasets on German dialects, languages, and attitudes towards them in Germany (cf. the Northern-Germany-Survey 2016, the Germany-Survey 2017). We will analyse attitudes towards Low German focusing on similarities and differences of these attitudes and attitudes towards other German dialects and other languages. Then, we will elaborate the implications that this contested status of Low German has, e.g. on counting speakers of the variety. Statistics on speakers of Low German are highly dependent on the question, its wording and design (including the possible answers) used to identify speakers. That is, whether one asks about languages or dialects, and whether or not language varieties are explicitly named in the question and response options respectively. This shows how the technical and conceptual question of how to classify a variety also influences supposedly objective measures like number of speakers.

References
Adler, A., Ehlers, C., Goltz, R., Kleene, A. and Plewnia, A. (2018) The current status and use of Low German. Initial results of a representative survey (trans. H. Heaney). Mannheim: Institut für Deutsche Sprache.
Goltz, R. and Kleene, A. (2020) Niederdeutsch. In R. Beyer and A. Plewnia (eds) Handbuch der Sprachminderheiten in Deutschland. Tübingen: Narr.

10:30-11:00

Etena


11:00-12:00

Keynote


Ingrid Piller

Macquarie University, Australia.

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed deep injustices in crisis communication in linguistically diverse societies. In this lecture, I will share case studies related to the language challenges of the COVID-19 crisis. These case studies will form the basis on which to explore more fundamental questions of how linguistic injustice is constituted and how it can be overcome.

12:00-13:30

Panel session 7


7.1.


Josu Aztiria Urtaran

  • BENOÎT DAZÉAS
    Lo Congrès permanent de la lenga occitana erakundeko zuzendaria
    b.dazeas@locongres.org

    Feuille de route pour le développement numérique occitan

  • CLAUDIA SORIA
    The Digital Language Diversity Project ikerketa-proiektuko zuzendaria eta Institute for Computational Linguistics «A. Zampolli» (National Research Council of Italy) ikerketa-zentruko ikertzailea.
    claudia.soria@ilc.cnr.it

    Alliances for digital linguistic diversity

  • JOSE IGNACIO LOPEZ SUSIN
    Aragoiko Gobernuko Hizkuntza Politikarako zuzendaria
    jilopezs@aragon.es

    El desarrollo digital del Aragónes: estrategias y herramientas: experiencias para una lengua con pocos recursos.

  • JOSU AZTIRIA URTARAN
    Elhuyar Fundazioko adimen artifiziala eta hizkuntza-teknologien koordinatzailea eta Linguatec proiektuaren zuzendaria.
    j.aztiria@elhuyar.eus

    Hizkuntza gutxiagotuen garapen digitala adimen aritifizialaren eta Big Dataren aroan: euskararen ekarpena baliabide urriko hizkuntzei.

  • MAIALEN SOBRINO LOPEZ
    Garabide elkarteko aholkularia
    msobrino@garabide.eus

    Hizkuntza-lankidetza eremu teknologikoan eta hizkuntzen biziberritzea: eremu berritzailea eta ezinbestekoa

Abstract of the colloquium

Ingurune digitala, hiztun gutxiko eta baliabide urriko hizkuntzentzat, aterpe zein arriskuesparru izan daiteke. Hizkuntza batek ingurune digitalean duen egoerari bizitasun digitala deitzen zaio, eta zenbat eta hobeto egon ingurune digitalean, orduan eta bizitasun digital hobea izango du hizkuntza batek.

Europako puntako hizkuntza-teknologietako adituek aspaldi ohartarazi dute Europako hizkuntza gehienek ez bide dutela biziraungo aro digitalean. Europako 80 bat hizkuntzetatik 30etan hizkuntza-teknologiek duten babes-maila aztertuta, adituen konklusioa da 30 hizkuntza horietarik 21etan “hutsa” edo “eskasa” dela digitalki garatzeko babes edo laguntza. Azterketa META-NET sareak garatu zuen, 34 herrialdetako 60 ikerketa-zentroz osatutako bikaintasun-sare europarrak, eta tartean euskararen liburu-zuria ere irakurgai dago.

Azterketaren emaitzak oso dira kezkagarriak. Europako hizkuntzarik gehienek behar baino baliabide gutxiago dauzkate, eta haietariko zenbait erabat baztertuta daude. Zentzu horretan, Europako hizkuntzetariko asko ez daude prest etorkizunari aurre egiteko.

2018ko irailaren 11n Europako Parlamentuak “Language equality in the digital age” txostena onartu zuen, aldeko 592 botorekin, kontrako 45ekin eta 44 abstentziorekin. Laburbilduz, META-NET sareak egiten duen diagnostikoa berresten du eta hizkuntzen arteko arrakala digitala handitzen ari dela dio argi bezain zorrotz. Horretarako, hainbat politika, gomendio eta ekimen ematen ditu.

Testuinguru honetan eta aipatu dugun bezala, hizkuntza gutxiagotu gehienak babes juridiko nahikorik gabe, hizkuntzaren corpusa garatu gabe eta baliabide urriekin aurkitzen dira. Beraz, hizkuntzaren biziraupena hain kritikoa baldin bada aro digitalean, ezinbestekoa bihurtzen da hizkuntza gutxiagotuen arteko aliantzak eta lankidetza garatzea eremu digital eta teknologikoan ere. Euskararen garapen digitala gainera eredugarria izan daiteke beste gainbat hizkuntzentzat, beste esparru askotan bezala.

Azken urteotan hizkuntza gutxiagotuen bizitasun digitala eta garapen teknologikoa aurrera eramateko proiektu ugari eraman dira aurrera, Linguatec eta DLDP Europako proiektuak esate baterako. Linguatec hiru urteko mugaz gaindiko proiektua da Interreg-Poctefa deialdian diruz lagundua (EFA 227/16), eta haren helburua da aragoieraren, okzitanieraren, katalanaren eta euskararen garapen digitalerako elkarlana bideratzea, ezagutza, baliabideak eta tresnak partekatuz eta berariazko aplikazioak sortuz. EHU/UPVko IXA Taldea, Euskaltzaindia, Lo Congres okzitanieraren kongresua, Aragoiko Gobernua, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Delegation Regionale Midipyrenees (Okzitanako Tolosa) eta Elhuyar Fundazioa (liderra) dira kontsortzioko kideak (https://linguatec-poctefa.eu).

The Digital Language Diversity Project Erasmus+ programak diruz lagundutako barruan kokaturiko hiru urteko proiektu bat izan da. Proiektuaren helburua Europar Batasuneko hizkuntza gutxituen errepresentazio urria duten hizkuntzetako hiztunak ahalduntzea izan du helburu, edukiak beren hizkuntza gutxituan sortzeko eta partekatzeko ezagutza eta trebetasunak garatuz. DLDP proiektua Europar Batasunak finantzatzen du, Erasmus Plus programaren barruan (Erasmus+ Programme | Grant Agreement No. 2015-1-IT02-KA204- 015090) (http://www.dldp.eu/)

Baliabide gutxiko hizkuntza-komunitateek beraz, bizitasun digitalean aurre-pausoak emateko estrategiak diseinatzerakoan ikuspegi globalarekin eta hizkuntza-biziberritzeko estrategia oso baten baitan heldu behar diote erronkari, baina, hori eginda ere ezinbestekoa dute egoera eta baldintza antzekoetan dauden hizkuntza-komunitateekin lankidetza teknologikoari ere ekitea.

Proposatzen dugun panelean eremu horretan eman diren esperientziak, estrategiak eta etorkizuneko erronken inguruan gogoeta egitea da helburua.

7.2.


Maite Puigdevall
Estibaliz Amorrortu
Ane Ortega
Jone Goirigolzarri
Jaqueline Urla
Joan Pujolar
Martin Vázquez

  • AUTHOR 1: MAITE PUIGDEVALL, JOAN PUJOLAR & ALBA COLOMBO Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)
    mpuigdevallse@uoc.edu; jpujolar@uoc.edu & acolombo@uoc.edu

Title of the paper: People and places as stepping stones for new speakers of Catalan

In this communication we want to present the results of an ethnographic study about the learning of Catalan language and social integration in two specific “spaces”: the Voluntariat per la Llengua programme of the Consortium for Linguistic Normalization and the popular and traditional culture groups of the Diables (Devils) of Barcelona. We have examined how these spaces facilitate (or not) linguistic mudes and the reorganisation of the repertoire for accessing new domains of social relationships; in sum, to the symbolic and economic capital in the Catalan language market (Bourdieu, 1982).

  • AUTHOR 2: FERNANDO RAMALLO & MARTÍN VAZQUEZ
    Universidade de Vigo (UVigo)
    martivazquez@uvigo.gal & framallo@uvigo.gal

Title of the paper: El neofalantismo como «espacio de esperanza»

Entender dialécticamente los procesos de minorización lingüística conlleva reconocer la necesidad de su superación. A lo largo de la historia reciente, esta superación ha tenido como principal consecuencia la desaparición de numerosas comunidades lingüísticas y culturales por formas de dominación política bien conocidas. Ahora bien, cabe, al menos, la posibilidad de una superación emancipadora en la que la desminorización sea el objetivo. Por ello, en esta comunicación, desde el utopismo dialéctico y la sociolingüística política y tomando como estudio de caso la (des)minorización del gallego en Galicia, consideramos el neofalantismo y su sujeto como un «espacio para la esperanza» (Harvey 2000) sobre el que construír esa superación.

  • AUTHOR 3: ANE ORTEGA & IONE GOIRIGOLZARRI
    Universidad de Deusto/Deustuko Unibertsitatea y Escuela Universitaria de Magisterio Begoñako Andra Mari Irakasleen Unibertsitate Eskola (BAM)
    esti.amorrortu@deusto.es; aortega@bam.edu.es & jone.goirigolzarri@deusto.es

Title of the paper: An action research project as a bridging space for triggering muda processes in favour of Basque

In this communication we present the experience of an action research project conducted with university students that aims to explore muda processes in favour of Basque. Participants in the research project have been agents of their own change by becoming co-researchers, who observe their own behaviour and set themselves personal challenges for increasing their everyday use of Basque. Participants have engaged in a process of self-awareness and reflective thinking, where teamwork and co-operative discussion of ideas and experiences and accompaniment (Bucholtz et al 2016) have been key to find strategies for increasing agency (Aheam 2011). In this colloquium we will explore the idea of the action research project as a bridging space (del Valle 2001) in the linguistic trajectories of our participants.

  • DISCUSSANT: JAQULELINE URLA
    University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass)
    jurla@anthro.umass.edu

 

Abstract of the colloquium

Previous studies of mudes in minority language contexts have contributed to our understanding of how linguistic codes are appropriated across the lifespan of individuals, and hence operate within a temporal frame of reference (Pujolar and Puigdevall 2015; Ortega et al. 2016; Ramallo 2018; Pujolar 2019). However, there is also a spatial dimension to these linguistic appropriations that is relevant. Life history narratives often include reference to “safe spaces”, particular social contexts in which the pressure for linguistic correctness is relaxed and where individuals can try out new forms of selfpresentation that they can later apply to the more complex contexts of everyday life (Puigdevall, Colombo and Pujolar 2019). One can also use the concept of “stepping stones” or “bridging places” developed by anthropologist Teresa del Valle (2001), to describe spaces that facilitate new socialisations. These can give rise to alternative discourses and practices and allow individuals to move to and across other domains that would have been inaccessible without their previous experience in a bridging place. We believe that these ways of experiencing and imagining “space” as linguistically informed deserves further development beyond the traditional notions of social domain in the sociology of language (Fishman 1991).

In this colloquium we will present the results of three ethnographic and action research projects about learning and adopting Basque, Catalan, and Galician. The definition of “spaces of hope” (Harvey, 2000) for minority languages, whether formally or informally constituted, needs to be understood in terms of whether these spaces facilitate (or not) linguistic mudes and the reorganisation of the repertoire for accessing new domains of social relationships. We want to discuss the dynamic nature of “spaces”, and how they can become resignified by practices and people that both inhabit and transit through them. What makes a space a legitimising or delegitimising place for new speaker practices and what characteristics they possess as mobilisers of active or passive use of minority languages.

The colloquium will be organised as follows:

  1. Communications : 45-50 min.
  2. Discussion : 20-25 min.
  3. Q&A : 20 min.

References
Ahearn, L.M. (2001). Language and agency. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30, 109-137.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Ce que parler veut dire. Paris. Fayard.
Bucholtz, Mary, Dolores Ins. Casillas & Jin Sook Lee (2016). Beyond Empowerment: Accompaniment and Sociolinguistic Justice in a Youth Research Program. In Lawson & Sayers (eds.), Sociolinguistic Research: Application and Impact. Routledge.
Del Valle, Teresa. 2001. “Asociacionismo y Redes de Mujeres ¿Espacios Puente para el Cambio”. Anuario de Hojas de Warmi; 12:131-151.
Fishman, Joshua A. 1991. Reversing Language Shift. Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon: Multilingual matters.
Harvey, David. 2000. Spaces of Hope. Edinburgh University Press.
Puigdevall, Maite; Alba Colombo & Joan Pujolar. 2019. “Espacios de adopción del catalán, una aproximación etnográfica a las mudas lingüísticas en Cataluña”, in Ramallo, Fernando, Estibaliz Amorrortu y Maite Puigdevall (Eds.). Neohablantes de lenguas minoritarias en el Estado español. Madrid: Iberoamericana Vervuert.
Ortega, Ane; Estibaliz Amorrortu; Jone Gorigolzarri y Jaqueline Urla. 2016. Los nuevos hablantes de euskera: experiencias, actitudes e identidades. Bilbao: Universidad de Deusto.
Pujolar, Joan i Maite Puigdevall. 2015. “Linguistic ‘Mudes’: How to Become a New Speaker in Catalonia”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Special Issue: New Speakers of Minority Languages: The Challenging Opportunity; 231: 167-187.
Pujolar, Joan. 2019. “Linguistic mudes: An exploration over the linguistica constitution of subjects. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Special Issue: Experiences of Speakerhood: Migrant Speakers’ Battles for the Inclusion in Traditionally Monolingual and Bilingual Contexts; 257: 165-189.
Pujolar, Joan & Maite Puigdevall. 2015. “Linguistic ‘Mudes’: How to Become a New Speaker in Catalonia”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language; 231: 167-187.
Ramallo, Fernando 2018. “O neofalantismo e o suxeito neofalante”. Actas do XIII Congreso Internacional de Lingüística Xeral, 2018.

7.3.


Agurtzane Elordui
Orreaga Ibarra
Jokin Aiestaran
Garbiñe Bereziartua
Beñat Muguruza
Libe Mimenza

  • AUTHOR 1: ORREAGA IBARRA
    Affiliations: Navarra Public University
    orreaga@unavarra.es

Title of the paper: Kode-aldaketarako motibazioak euskal hiztun gazteen instagrameneko elkarrizketetan Code-switching motivations in the Instagram conversations of young Basque speakers

In the colloquium, Orreaga Ibarra will deal with the motivations for code-switching in Instagram conversations among young Basque speakers who are fluent in two languages: Spanish and Basque and with a great linguistic domain of English;

  • AUTHOR 2: JOKIN AIESTARAN & AGURTZANE ELORDUI
    Affiliations: University of the Basque Country
    jokin.aiestaran@ehu.eus; agurtzane.elordui@ehu.eus

Title of the paper: ‘By using Basque I feel ‘real me’ in Instagram’. Metalinguistic reflections on language stylistic choices among the Basque youth

Jokin Aiestaran and Agurtzane Elordui will focus on the role of vernacular creativity in digital media, and the place of Basque and vernacular Basque dialects as primordial resources for stylization and performance of authenticity in written social media.

  • AUTHOR 3: BEÑAT MUGURUZA & GARBIÑE BEREZIARTUA
    Affiliations University of the Basque Country
    benat.muguruza@ehu.eus; garbine.bereziartua@ehu.eus

Title of the paper: Euskalkira egokitzea: euskara batutik “benetakora” / Accommodation to dialects in Basque: from standard to “authentic”

Bereziartua and Muguruza will focus on participants whose only variety of Basque is the standard form to show how they sometimes tend to use certain features of different dialects of Basque in order to make their writing more informal and at the same time gain legitimacy as speakers of Basque.

  • AUTHOR 4: LIBE MIMENZA
    Affiliations: University of the Basque Country
    libe.mimenza@ehu.eus

Title of the paper: Basque youth identity constructions in social media: an everyday digital multilingual practise

Libe Mimenza is going to focus on Basque youth identity constructions in social media platforms. How are identities (co-)constructed in and through social media? How is that process connected and determined by their language choices and platforms? How a minority language shape young people´s digital practises?

 

Abstract of the colloquium

Social media have become a relevant site for young people for negotiating and constructing identity in a global youth culture, and the deployment of multilingual language resources and the constant alternation between codes are probably the most relevant stylistic features in those digital and glocal identity constructions. In this colloquium we want to explore those multilingual practices and glocal identities in the social media culture, as well as to take a close look at the place minority languages and dialects have in that global youth cultural context.

The authors in the colloquium will show the results of Gaztesare research project. The project focuses on the multilingual practices of Basque young university students in Instagram and Facebook, and on their metalinguistic reflections on their stylistic choices and preferences in social networks. Data for Gaztesare was collected in 2019 and come from a sample of 30 Basque-speaking university students from the Basque Country, aged between 18 and 25. The corpus of Gaztesare compiles the written production in Instagram and Facebook of those students, but it also includes 6 focus groups where students were invited to talk about stylistic choices based on examples drawn from the corpus. Gaztesare has also taken a techno-biographic approach to language and identity (Barton and Lee 2013a, b; Lee 2017). This method allows us to understand the participants’ current linguistic practices in social media and how their online language uses relate to their everyday experiences with technologies.

7.4.


Olga Kazakevich
Svetlana Burkova
Marina Kutsaeva
Irina Samarina
Svetlana Moskvitcheva
Anna Kondic

  • AUTHOR 1: ANA KONDIC
    Affiliations: DLCE SHH Max Planck Jena, Germany
    skondic@hotmail.com

Title of the paper: Where should we learn our native tongue?

  • AUTHOR 2: TATIANA AGRANAT
    Affiliations: Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences
    tagranat(a)yandex.ru

Title of the paper: Grandmother tongue of Siberian Setos

  • AUTHOR 3: LEILA DODYKHUDOEVA
    Affiliations: Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences
    leiladod@yahoo.com

Title of the paper: Challenges of first language acquisition in early childhood: father or mother tongues?

  • AUTHOR 4: MAMADALI GASANOV & SVETLANA MOSKVITCHEVA
    Affiliations RUDN University
    moskvitcheva(a)mail.ru

Title of the paper: Ways and motivation to transmit the Azerbaijani language in Moscow Azerbaijani community

 

Abstract of the colloquium

Today many autochthonous minority languages all over the world are seriously endangered as they stopped being transmitted from parents to children in the family context. Parents being bilingual (equipped both with their ancestral language and a language of the higher status and wider use, e.g. an official language of the country) often chose to bring up their children in the language dominant language of the territory or in the official language of the country and not to pass their ancestral language to them keeping it for useless for their future life thus depriving them of their inheritance. The same situation is also characteristic of languages of immigrant communities.

The objective of the colloquium is to analyze factors that cause the break of intergenerational mother tongue transmission and those that might contribute to prevent the break or to return the ancestral language to the family. The situation of autochthonous minority languages and languages of immigrants will be compared.

We are planning an introductory presentation of the colloquium chair (Olga Kazakevich), four presentations of the colloquium participants and a final discussion. The following papers are to be presented:

  1. The Chair’s introduction (Olga Kazakevich) will give an overview of the problem illustrating it with examples of minority languages of Siberia and languages of immigrant communities of Moscow.
  2. In the paper “Where should we learn our native tongue?” its author (Ana Kondic) discusses the transmission of the native language to children in cases of four indigenous languages of Latin America that I have worked with so far. The four of them find themselves at a different level of endangerment and in different sociolinguistic circumstances: South Eastern Huastec (Mayan, Mexico), Tsotsil (Maya, Mexico), Tsesungun (Mapudungan, Chile), Mixe (Mixe‐Zoquean, Mexico).
  3. The paper “Grandmother tongue of Siberian Setos” (Tatiana Agranat) tells about a part of Seto ethnic group, which migrated from the west of the Russian Empire to Siberia in the early 1910s. Today their descendants maintain a fairly traditional lifestyle to some extent. In the family grandmother or even in grand grandmother is responsible for children education and they pass (or rather used to pass the language to their grandchildren.
  4. The paper “Challenges of first language acquisition in early childhood: father or mother tongues?” (Leila Dodykhudoeva) is focused on the situation in the south of Tajik Badakhshan where the living area of the population speaking various minority languages (e.g. Ishkashimi, Wakhi) is both fragmenting and shrinking. This fragmentation is intensified by specific marriage patterns, whereby men marry women from a neighbouring village speaking either Tajik or a different minority language from their own. This creates a challenging situation for the children in terms of language acquisition, adaptation and practice.
  5. The paper “Ways and motivation to transmit the Azerbaijani language in Moscow Azerbaijani community” (Mamadali Gasanov & Svetlana Moskvitcheva) is dedicated to the use and intergenerational transmission of Azerbaijani language in Moscow Azerbaijani community. It is based on a sociolinguistic survey done in Moscow Azerbaijani community in 2019‐2020. The authors give special attention to the choice of language variety (standard / dialect), language use in different communicative spheres and to the respondents’ desire / ability to learn the language outside their families.

7.5.


Michael Hornsby
Nicole Dołowy-Rybinska
Joanna Chojnicka
Jeanne Toutous

  • MICHAEL HORNSBY
    Celtic Studies Research Unit. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Polan
    mhornsby@amu.edu.pl

The New Speaker Paradigm

  • NICOLE DOŁOWY-RYBIŃSKA
    Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    nicoledolowy@gmail.com

Breton and Lower Sorbian: similarities and differences in the sociolinguistic situations

  • JOANNA CHOJNICKA
    Celtic Studies Research Unit. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland.
    j.a.chojnicka@gmail.com

Lower Sorbian in the city of Cottbus

  • JEANNE TOUTOUS
    University of Rennes I, Rennes, France.
     jeanne.toutous@wanadoo.fr

Breton in the city of Rennes

Abstract of the colloquium

In many places in Europe, language revitalization is increasingly attributed to young, predominantly urban and highly mobile people who are not “native” speakers of the language in question and are not based in its traditional, rural “heartland”. In recognition of this, the panel New Speakers in the City: Language Revitalization Without Native Speakers brings together four members of a project looking at such “new” speakers of Breton in Rennes (Upper Brittany, France) and of Lower Sorbian in Cottbus (Lower Lusatia/Brandenburg, Germany), each from their own unique disciplinary perspective.

The goal of the project is to understand how language revitalization works when the members of a community undertaking it are non-native or new speakers. An important role here is attributed to language ideologies that drive, but can also inhibit, language revitalization efforts. Thus, using a variety of qualitative and quantitative sociolinguistic methods (sociolinguistic questionnaires, focus groups with parents and children involved in minority language education/cultural activities, semi-structured interviews with key actors in the communities and participant observation in a number of educational/recreational sites in Brittany/Lower Lusatia), the project investigates how the key actors in these revitalization processes discursively construct and reflect on their choices and activities, goals, resources, obstacles and outcomes.

Looking at the initial data thus obtained from a variety of critical perspectives, the four research collaborators and contributors to this panel additionally aim at reexaming the terms and concepts used in the field of language revitalization research. It is not insignificant that the terms “heartland”, “native” and “new” speakers in the first paragraph were provided in quotation marks. Language revitalization efforts that are now taking place in Upper Brittany and Lower Lusatia are forcing researchers to reconsider the long-held assumptions about the native – non-native speaker distinction, about authenticity, language ownership and access, and related notions. Furthermore, the native-new speaker dichotomy needs to be carefully unpacked, since many speakers who engage with minority languages in Europe and beyond do not neatly fit into one of these categories. The panel, then, seeks to unpick what we mean when we talk about a minority language speaker, and how different actors can occupy different points on a ‘continuum of speakerhood’ and how these positions can shift, mutate or otherwise be transformed at different stages of speaker trajectories.

To discuss these issues, each of the panelists will offer their own, unique, disciplinary perspective on the common, shared project, contributing not only mutually reinforcing input, but also, hopefully, illuminating insights that can inform and enrich the other disciplines’ points of view. What is important is that each panelist will focus on a different aspect of the project in order to avoid redundancy. This way, the panel audience will be offered a unique opportunity to get acquainted with an interdisciplinary research project the strength of which is drawn from the diversity of its participating disciplines (sociolinguistics, CDA, anthropology and political science), rather than receiving an abridged overview that necessarily ignores or drastically flattens some of them.

13:30-14:00

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